Introduction• This particular question can be divided into to aspects; one being attracting an audience through ‘pleasures’, while the other is attracting and addressing an audience through their ‘fears’.• When watching a film, there are certain aspects in particular that attract us into watching the text. These ‘Pleasures’ not only attract the audience, but address them personally, through various methods.• In contrast to ‘pleasures’ specific films, for example, a horror or thriller film, attract and address the audience through generating fear, possibly bringing light onto the audience’s own personal fears.
Cliff Hanger Hook Resolution Enigma Narrative Climax Pleasures Familiarity and Conventions DeathVariability Genre Thematic Pleasures PleasuresDevelopment, Audiences Pleasures Betrayalchallenge andadapt Style/Aesth Representat etic -ional Identification Mise en Scene: Pleasures Pleasures Props Costume Location, Age, Set Cinematography Situation, Gender
Audience Pleasures• From the previous mind map, there are 5 key aspects to which ‘Audience pleasures’ can be separated into, which attract an audience to watch a film, these are:1. Narrative Pleasures2. Thematic Pleasures3. Representational Pleasures4. Style/Aesthetic Pleasures5. Genre Pleasures
Narrative Pleasures• Firstly, a film can attract their specific audience through the narrative (storyline) of the film. Many conventions are placed within a narrative structure which please, intrigue and attract the audience.• For example, an ‘enigma’ or ‘hook’ may be placed within the narrative, creating a sense of mystery and excitement for the audience, which they can then question and follow throughout the film or, until it is resolved.• Similarly, a cliff hanger, which can be placed throughout the narrative or at the end, leaves the audience very much on edge and ‘ in the dark’ about the narrative; are forced to question the previous goings on, or, what is going to happen next within the narrative. This is a narrative pleasure because it addresses the audience, allowing them to question and evaluate current and future situations, characters etc. An evident example of an extremely effective cliff hanger is within the complex narrative of ‘Inception’; the audience are left with a very open and debatable ending to which the protagonist spins his ‘totum’ but unbeknown to the audience, does it land, concluding that he is in reality, or does it keep spinning? Narratives like this are pleasing because it somewhat connotes a sense of continuation for the audience. It hasn’t been resolved, therefore we can still talk about the film; if it is not completely resolved, we cannot forget about it as easily. Some would say that it quite an annoying pleasure!• This is in contrast to resolution, in which certain target audience’s enjoy a very much structured, start, middle and end to a film, in which they are attracted by the equilibrium (normal day-to-day life), the disruption, and then, the final resolution.• Finally, climatic aspect, or the ‘climax’ of a film, is the result of the enigma, hook, the overall build up towards a very tense and emotional moment. For example, with reference to the gritty thriller ‘ Essex Boys’ the climax is very much the fight within the fish market, to which Jason kidnaps a man. This is because the journey to Essex, the intense music, Billy’s narrative; these have all been building up to this vital point within the narrative. Other examples include, possibly a big fight between James Bond, and his arch nemesis. The audience are therefore attracted by the preparation and build up to this point, as they are expecting it not to disappoint.
Thematic Pleasures• Thematic pleasures attract/address an audience, quite simply, through a very clear running theme, for example, specifically to thrillers, death or betrayal. This pleasure is very much generalised and possibly more vague, generating a larger attraction within the audience.
Representational Pleasures• Attracting an audience through representational pleasures allows the film, in terms of location and character (gender, age, archetype, situation) to connect with their audience. This is through a sense of identification.• For example, many thrillers use an urban location; despite the connotations of grit, crime or business, and a busy pace of life, the majority of an audience can relate to an urban location. This is because it addresses a pace of life, as well as an extremely recognisable environment, to which many of us have experienced or, live in. For example, the streets of New York within ‘Se7en’, or the sleek, sophisticated streets of London in ‘Layer Cake’. However, within the opening of ‘Se7en’ we are also introduced to Morgan Freeman character’s apartment. This attracts the audience as we can immediately relate to his routines, as we also do very personal routines within our own homes; the representation of Freemans, clean apartment ,with his chess board and coffee maker, reflects the normalities and essentials which we need to go about our daily routines.• Also, the representation of age enables a particular age group to identify themselves within a particular character. For example, an older character may be presented as wise and thoughtful, to which they have had many experiences, similar to an older audience. This is in contrast to the representation of younger characters, being more naive and careless; they have made mistakes and are learning from them, possibly like the target audience watching, which re-assures them.• This is the same with gender, in which a male or female can identify with the character purely on whether they are male or female.
Style/Aesthetic Pleasures• A film can attract an audience through aesthetic pleasures. If an aspect is ‘aesthetic’, it is more to do with the exterior; being attracted by the ‘art and beauty’. Therefore, in terms of a film, this is quite literally, how the film looks.• Therefore, style and aesthetic pleasures are purely to do with the cinematography of a film; the way it has been shot. This includes the shot type and possibly variety, as well as much of the mise en scene, consisting of costume, props and set.• This particularly attracts a more, stereotypically, ‘cultured’ audience, as the attraction is more of the production and technique to achieve this aestheticism, white requires some knowledge.• For example, Anna Karenina attracted the majority of its audience through the films style and aesthetic pleasures, such as the beautiful setting of the stage, the sleek panning shots between each set, and the detailed periodic Russian dresses. This audience pleasure and therefore attraction was clearly expressed through it’s BAFTA Awards; nominated in ‘Make up and Hair’, ‘Cinematography’ and winning ‘Costume Design’.
Genre Pleasures• Within a genre, there can be also various sub-genres. For example, within the genre of ‘thriller’, there are the sub genres of gangster light, such as ‘Lock, Stock and Two Smocking Barrels’, gangster heavy, and Film Noir such as ‘ The Third Man’.• Therefore, a film can attract an audience through the familiarity and conventions which will appear within that genre. For example, if watching a film noir sub- genre, the audience will expect and be attracted to the conventions such as extreme lighting and shadows, certain archetypes such as the femme fatale and possibly even a grey scale colour.
How did you attract/address your audience?Narrative Pleasures:With specific reference to our thriller ‘Crowe’, we attracted and addressed the audience through thenarrative pleasures of:• Enigma. This was connoted through the use of the ‘CONFIDENTIAL’ letter, to which this simple prop immediately hooks in the audience by posing several questions; why is the letter confidential? Where is ‘Iga’ going? Who is she going to meet? This attracts and addresses the audience because they have to question and think about the narrative from the very start, the word ‘confidential’ hints secrecy, which can often be very unclear and complex. Linking to question 4, this attracts our audience as they like to be challenged when watching a film.• Climax. To support the appeal of a complex narrative, ‘Crowe’ contains the very climatic scene of ‘Crowe’ shooting ‘Iga’ upon ‘Miss River’s’ words. The thriller opening was very much building up to this particular scene, as the enigma of the ‘CONFIDENTIAL’ letter seems to be made clear. This is expressed through the tense music; in particular the loud, disturbing whispers, the close up shots and building up to shooting ‘Iga’, the voices the close ups, and the understanding from the audience that ‘Crowe’ is stalking ‘Iga’.• Cliff hanger. The final aspect of narrative pleasures that we use to attract our audience is a cliff hanger. ‘Crowe’ ends very ambiguously and mysteriously with the protagonist himself walking into the depths of the shadows. Although we are aware that ‘Crowe’ did kill ‘Iga’, the audience are still unclear on why he did it? And who is ‘Miss River’? . This attracts the audience because many characters have been introduced, but not all fully explained, along with the narrative itself, leaving the audience in a questionable and intrigued mind set.
How did you attract/address your audience?Genre Pleasures• ‘Crowe’ takes aspects of many genres, particularly, within the sub genres Film Noir, and some aspects of hard gangster ‘grit’.• Therefore because of these genres, we have attracted our audience through the use of familiar conventions. An example of this is the extreme shadows used, particularly upon the characters faces, as well as when ‘Iga’ is walking through the streets of Norwich. This is a particular convention of film noir, in which our audience, who are interested in more intricate, detailed films, will pick up upon. ‘Crowe’ also attracts the audience through the conventional, Film Noir archetype of the powerful and lustrous‘ Femme Fatale’.• However, our thriller also addresses your audience through the variability within the thriller genre. This is because ‘Crowe’ is a particularly nasty, dark and gritty adaptation of the familiar thriller genre; combining elements of ‘Casino Royale’ with ‘Se7en’, we have addressed the audience through developing and challenging their genre expectations and familiarities.
How did you attract/address your audience?Representational Pleasures• Through the way we represented certain aspects of our thriller, we attracted our target audience through a strong sense of identification. For example, our reasonably young audience can relate, in terms of age and gender, to the characters, possibly with modern reflections of their ‘reckless’ ways.• As well as this, the audience could possibly identify themselves within the tough situation ‘Crowe’ is put under. This is because, with reference to question 4, our target audience are either in jobs or working towards jobs, in which tough decisions have to be made, in order to achieve success, much like that of ‘Crowe’. Therefore, our audience can sympathise and connect with ‘Crowe’, due to his troubled and fragmented representation.• Identification can also be addressed through our urban location of Norwich. The explanation for this is very much similar to that in the general outline of representational pleasures; recognisable environment, can identify with the busy pace of life etc.
How did you attract/address your audience?Style/ Aesthetic Pleasures• Our audience members are as interested in the style of films, as they are in the complex narrative, explained by going to more independent, ‘artsy’ cinemas such as ‘Cinema City’.• Therefore, we attracted our audience through our use of cinematography; the overlay upon the fragmented establishing shots of Norwich, as well as the transitional jump cuts and harsh contrast within the ‘flash back’ scenes. These named examples add to the finished ‘look’ of the film, visually connoting style, and genre as well as an unsettling and unsteady tone (through the bright flashes and jump cuts, for example).• We must also take into consideration the aesthetic attraction of the mise en scene, including ‘Miss Rivers’ glamorous and indulgent fur coat and peal necklace. This attracts our audience because….
How did you attract/address your audience?Fears• As well as attracting the audience through pleasures, we attract and address our audience through their fears as well.• Director Hitchcock once said “Give them pleasure. The same pleasure they have when they wake up from a nightmare.”, meaning that what we must experience from watching a film must be extremely personal and individual to each member, much like a nightmare, as well as being very frightening. However, we are attracted and given some pleasure from a nightmare, as we don’t forget them easily; we like to recall them to our friends and family, therefore giving us slight pleasure.• Firstly, our film addresses the fear for, stereotypically, many women; being stalked, chased and possibly even killed by a shady and threatening man. We know that this is a fear of the female gender because almost all our films within school which were made by an all female group, had the narrative of a woman being chased by a man and, as many believe, we make and produce films, based upon our fears.• We also address the fear of entrapment and claustrophobia through our use of obscure shots (behind the wall) and the long shots of the very tight alley way location.
Fears Continued…• The whole opening of ‘Crowe’ is, primarily, based around crime. Crime on it’s own triggers fear within the audience because it is gritty and very much illegal (hinted through the graffiti on the walls) However, we have addressed this fear through our choice of hidden and dark locations; no one else seems to be present within the shots, except for the distant people on the other side of the alley-way, unaware of what is going on. This therefore connotes, much like the use of the sewer within ‘The Third Man’ , that crime within society is constantly ever present, just underlying in places society do not think to look. This therefore, is a particularly scary thought for the audience, to know that such evils take place within their home cities. Betrayal and death• With specific reference to the male gender, we addresses their fears through the weak representation of ‘Crowe’ before ‘Miss River’; presenting that men can be lured into and destroyed by a lustrous female (femme fatale). This taps into the audience’s fears in particular because even the protagonist has fallen for a woman’s power.• Finally, within question 4, one of the profiles stated that they were afraid of making life changing decisions, which can be identified with through ‘Crowe’s’ tough decision to kill ‘Iga’.