1. What is the normal white cell count?
2. What isleukaemia?
3. What are the two classificationsof leukaemia?
4. What happensto make acute leukaemia?
5. What are the featuresof acute leukaemia?
6. What investigationswouldyouuse?
7. What is the managementof leukaemia?
8. What is Chronicmyeloidleukaemia(CML)?
9. How is the oncogene formedinCML?
10. What are the bloodfindings?
11. What is the treatment?
12. What isthe mostcommontype of leukaemia?
13. What are the 3 stagesof CLL?
14. What islymphoma?
Total = 4-11x109
Clonal malignantdisorder, accumulation of abnormal
white cellsinbone marrow,bone marrowfailure gives
Acute = quick,symptoms(bleeding/bruising)
unable todifferentiatebutable todivide,crowdsbm
bruising/bleeding),Organfailure (bone pain,
Full bloodcount,bone marrow biopsy(see immature
marrow transplant(1:4 siblingmatch)
leukaemiccellsdifferentiate intomature forms
Philadelphiachromosome (9→ 22 translocation)
↑ White cell count(30 - 400 x109
(BCR-ABL),tyrosine kinase inhibitors
ChronicLymphocyte Leakaemia(CLL) - accumulation
of lymphocytesinthe blood,nocure,earlydisease >
14 year survival
Stage A - Hb>10g/dl + Platelets>100x109
/L(1 - 2 lymph
Stage B - Hb>10g/dl + Platelets>100x109
/L(3 - 5 lymph
Stage C - Hb<10g/dl or Platelets<100x109
malignantdisordersof lymphoidcells, Hodgkin
lymphoma,low andhighgrade non Hodgkin
Lecture: CSIM 14 - White cells and their disorders
16. How manyplateletsare withinamegakaryocyte?
17. What 5 organelles are withinaplatelet?
18. What do granulescontain?
19. What do electron-dense granulescontain?
20. What are the 3 plateletsurface glycoproteins?
21. Explainthe 3 stepsof plateletactivation.
dense tubularsystem, mitochondrion
GP Ib, GPIa/IIa,GPIIb/IIIa
1. Plateletadhesion(vWF- GpIa/IIabindsto collagen)
2. Release reaction (collogenexposure leadsto
discharge of granulesandelectrondense granules)
3. PlateletAggregation(swellingand+ve feedback
adhesiondue toADPand thromboxane A2