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Question
1. What is the normal white cell count?
2. What isleukaemia?
3. What are the two classificationsof leukaemia?
4. ...
Question
16. How manyplateletsare withinamegakaryocyte?
17. What 5 organelles are withinaplatelet?
18. What do granulescon...
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White cells and their disorders

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White cells and their disorders

  1. 1. Question 1. What is the normal white cell count? 2. What isleukaemia? 3. What are the two classificationsof leukaemia? 4. What happensto make acute leukaemia? 5. What are the featuresof acute leukaemia? 6. What investigationswouldyouuse? 7. What is the managementof leukaemia? 8. What is Chronicmyeloidleukaemia(CML)? 9. How is the oncogene formedinCML? 10. What are the bloodfindings? 11. What is the treatment? 12. What isthe mostcommontype of leukaemia? 13. What are the 3 stagesof CLL? 14. What islymphoma? 15. Answer  Total = 4-11x109 /L Neutrophils=2-7.5 x109 /L Lymphocytes=1.5-4x109 /L  Clonal malignantdisorder, accumulation of abnormal white cellsinbone marrow,bone marrowfailure gives symptoms  Acute = quick,symptoms(bleeding/bruising) Chronic= asymptomatic,detectedwithbloodtest  derivedfromabnormal stem/progenitorcell,blasts unable todifferentiatebutable todivide,crowdsbm  Anaemia(pallor,tired),Neutropenia(infectionsof mouth,skin,chest),Thrombocytopenia(spontaneous bruising/bleeding),Organfailure (bone pain, hepatosplenomegaly)  Full bloodcount,bone marrow biopsy(see immature cells),coagulationscreen,chestx-ray  Treat symptoms:Neutropenia(broadspectrum antibiotics),Anaemia(bloodtransfusion), Thrombocytopenia(platelettransfusion) Treat leukaemia:systemicchemotherapy,bone marrow transplant(1:4 siblingmatch)  clonal malignantmyeloproliferativedisorder, leukaemiccellsdifferentiate intomature forms  Philadelphiachromosome (9→ 22 translocation)  ↑ White cell count(30 - 400 x109 /L), granulocytes shown,↑basophilsandeosinophils,anaemia  Imatinibblocksproductof Philadelphiachromosome (BCR-ABL),tyrosine kinase inhibitors  ChronicLymphocyte Leakaemia(CLL) - accumulation of lymphocytesinthe blood,nocure,earlydisease > 14 year survival  Stage A - Hb>10g/dl + Platelets>100x109 /L(1 - 2 lymph nodes) Stage B - Hb>10g/dl + Platelets>100x109 /L(3 - 5 lymph nodes) Stage C - Hb<10g/dl or Platelets<100x109 /L  malignantdisordersof lymphoidcells, Hodgkin lymphoma,low andhighgrade non Hodgkin lymphoma  Module: CSIM Lecture: CSIM 14 - White cells and their disorders
  2. 2. Question 16. How manyplateletsare withinamegakaryocyte? 17. What 5 organelles are withinaplatelet? 18. What do granulescontain? 19. What do electron-dense granulescontain? 20. What are the 3 plateletsurface glycoproteins? 21. Explainthe 3 stepsof plateletactivation. 22. Answer  4000  Granule,electron-dense granule,microfilaments, dense tubularsystem, mitochondrion  platelet-derivedgrowthfactor, βthromboblobulin, fibrinogen,clottingfactor, vonWilebrandsfactor  ADP,ATP, serotonin,calcium  GP Ib, GPIa/IIa,GPIIb/IIIa  1. Plateletadhesion(vWF- GpIa/IIabindsto collagen) shape change 2. Release reaction (collogenexposure leadsto discharge of granulesandelectrondense granules) fibrogenbinding 3. PlateletAggregation(swellingand+ve feedback adhesiondue toADPand thromboxane A2 

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