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Roughly 50 Medical Mnemonics

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Roughly 50 Medical Mnemonics

  1. 1. Mohammed Khaledur Rahman| Student at King’s College London GKT Medical School 26th March - 09th June ROUGHLY 50 MEDICAL MNEMONICS
  2. 2. All my medical mnemonics can be found at Sites.google.com/site/gktmedicalstudent www.facebook.com/KhaledurMedicalMnemonics Disclaimer: Although all effort has been made to ensure the information found in this booklet is correct and accurate. I cannot take any responsibility for any form of harm resulting from this mnemonic booklet.
  3. 3. Contents Cardiovascular.........................................................................................................................................4 Atrioventricular Valves........................................................................................................................4 Cardio Exam: .......................................................................................................................................4 Malar flush......................................................................................................................................4 Mitral valve: ....................................................................................................................................4 COarctation of the aorta = COngenital ...............................................................................................4 Heart Rate...........................................................................................................................................4 ISChaemia ...........................................................................................................................................4 Drugs.......................................................................................................................................................4 Antacids: .............................................................................................................................................4 AntiBiotics...........................................................................................................................................5 ASpirin:................................................................................................................................................5 Calcium channel blockers (CCB)..........................................................................................................5 Penicillin..............................................................................................................................................5 PharmacoDynamincs and pharmacokinetics......................................................................................5 Proton Pump Inhibitors.......................................................................................................................5 Drugs ending in -PRazole are PRoton pump inhibitors e.g. Omeprazole (Losec), lansoprazole (Zoton), pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole (Nexium)............................5 ECG..........................................................................................................................................................5 Electrolytes .............................................................................................................................................6 Hypomagnesaemia And Hypokalaemia..............................................................................................6 Endocrinology .........................................................................................................................................6 Diabetes: Type 1 vs. Type 2.................................................................................................................6 Epidemiology...........................................................................................................................................6 Gastro......................................................................................................................................................6 CROhn's disease..................................................................................................................................6 dysphaSia and dysphaGia ...................................................................................................................6 Small Intestine.....................................................................................................................................6 Immunology............................................................................................................................................7 Flu vs. cold...........................................................................................................................................7 Neutrophils .........................................................................................................................................7 Microbiology...........................................................................................................................................7 Baby with a group B strep infection....................................................................................................7
  4. 4. Cocci....................................................................................................................................................7 Miscellaneous .........................................................................................................................................8 Anaemia..............................................................................................................................................8 Auscultation........................................................................................................................................8 Calculating BMI ...................................................................................................................................8 Parenchyma vs. Stroma: .....................................................................................................................9 Lungs (& The Heart) ............................................................................................................................9 Neuro ......................................................................................................................................................9 Epilepsy:..............................................................................................................................................9 Upper Motor Neurone Lesion.............................................................................................................9 Ophthalmology .......................................................................................................................................9 Cone vs. Rods......................................................................................................................................9 Refraction of Light...............................................................................................................................9 Respiratory..............................................................................................................................................9 Asthma Aetiology (E)'s = .....................................................................................................................9 FEV1/FVC...........................................................................................................................................10 Hoarseness........................................................................................................................................10 Lungs .................................................................................................................................................10 Pneumonia:...........................................................................................................................................10 Investigations....................................................................................................................................10 Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.................................................................................................................10 Respiratory Failure Type...................................................................................................................11
  5. 5. Cardiovascular Atrioventricular Valves arrange in alphabetical order and match accordingly. Left atrioventricular valve, Right atrioventricular valve Bicuspid/Mitral valve, Tricuspid valve Therefore Left atrioventricular valve = Bicuspid/Mitral valve Right atrioventricular valve = Tricuspid valve * mitraL = Left atrioventricular valve Cardio Exam: Malar flush Malar flush = Mitral Stenosis Mitral valve: MitraL listen with stethoscope’s belL COarctation of the aorta = COngenital Heart Rate INcreases during Inspiration ISChaemia: intracellular levels in the heart Increase in Sodium during ischaemia, followed by increase in Calcium during reperfusion Drugs Antacids: Aluminium-based (e.g. Al-hydroxide), Magnesium based (e.g. Mg-trisilicate), MiXed (e.g. MaaloX)
  6. 6. AntiBiotics kills Bacteria, no effect against viruses or fungi ASpirin: Absorbed in the Stomach Calcium channel blockers (CCB) Cancels vasoConstriction therefore vasodilates. Penicillin Penicillin Based Antibiotics: Penicillin based antibiotics end in -(i/a)cillin PharmacoDynamincs and pharmacokinetics PharmacoDynamincs = DRUGs effect on the body therefore Pharmacokinteics = effect of body on drug (e.g. metabolism of drug) Proton Pump Inhibitors Drugs ending in -PRazole are PRoton pump inhibitors e.g. Omeprazole (Losec), lansoprazole (Zoton), pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole (Nexium). ECG QRS complex (QRS = 3 letters) 3 squares wide qrS = Should be leSS than 3 Small squares wide Q-T interval (Q-T two letters) should noT be more than Two large squares in duration. T (T for Two) wave should noT be more than TWO large squares tall. A  Z: QRS before (QT or T) in alphabetical order, therefore QRS is small squares and QT or T is large squares
  7. 7. Electrolytes Hypomagnesaemia And Hypokalaemia "serum magnesium concentrations should be normalised, as hypomagnesaemia makes hypokalaemia difficult or impossible to correct". (M)g before (P)otassium when in alphabetical order M comes before K+ in M K Rahman! Endocrinology Diabetes: Type 1 vs. Type 2 the number 2 is bigger than 1 therefore patients with type 2 diabetes often overweight 1 is smaller than 2 therefore type 1 are younger (usually <30) and type two are older (usually >30) Epidemiology incidence vs. prevalence iNcideNce = New cases Prevalence = Proportion of population PREvalence = how sPREad across the population Gastro CROhn's disease can occur anywhere aCROss the GI tract from mouth to anus dysphaSia and dysphaGia S=speech G=Gastro = i.e. swallowing Small Intestine Six to Seven metres the only numbers that begin with S are numbers to do with 6 or 7. therefore the Small intestine is Six or Seven metres.
  8. 8. Immunology Flu vs. cold which one is a stuffy nose more common in? flu = 3 letters cold = 4 letters nose = 4 letters therefore runny and stuffy nose is more common in cold. Neutrophils NEUtrophils - first to respond to a NEW problem in immunology. "neutrophils are one of the first-responders of inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation" (wiki) Microbiology Baby with a group B strep infection Baby needs to be treated with penicillin on birth Cocci cock - slang for Penis any bacteria with the word cocci = Gram Positive cocci Yeast – Cryptococcus, watch out for INFORMAL names for microorganisms that DONT fit this pattern such as gonococcus and meningococcus
  9. 9. Miscellaneous Anaemia mIcrocytic = Iron deficiency mIcro vs. mAcro Auscultation AUSCULTATION Low pitch noise - listen with the beLL High pitch listen with the dIapHraGm Calculating BMI Weight (kg) / Height2 (Metres) Image of Carrying weight (world) on top of shoulders. Therefore Weight goes on top of height in the formula.
  10. 10. Parenchyma vs. Stroma: Supporting Tissue = STroma therefore parenchyma = functional part of organ Lungs (& The Heart) effusion in lung = EF off = F.Off = swear word = lung pushes heart away COLlapse = heart is pulled towards lungs = COmes Closer Neuro Epilepsy: PROdrome: PRecedes the seizure (is not part of the seizure) (A)ura: (A)ware of the "feeling" during the seizure Upper Motor Neurone Lesion uPPer motor neurone lesion effects the oPPosite side of the body to the lesion. Ophthalmology Cone vs. Rods (C)ones = (C)olour vision and (C)entral vision. Plus: (C)ones mainly confined to (C)entral yellow spot (macula) Refraction of Light The refraction of light can be emmetropic (normal), myopic (short sighted) and hypermetropic (long- sighted). H comes before M in alphabetical order. and L comes before S in alphabetical order. therefore when arranged in alphabetical order: (H)ypermetropic is (L)ong-sighted (M)yopic is (S)hort-sighted. Hypermetropic is a Longer word than Myopic which is Shorter Respiratory Asthma Aetiology (E)'s = IgE: Atopy is the term used in individuals who readily develop immunoglobin E (IgE) antibodies against common Environmental antigens.
  11. 11. FEV1/FVC FEV1/FVC is in alphabetical order FEV1/FVC Obstructive comes before Restrictive in alphabetical order. therefore obstructive is less than 70% and restrictive is more than 80%. Hoarseness Hoarseness = Horse = Horse in Chess moves in the shape of an L Hoarseness = horse= L shape = L words below. Hoarseness in respiratory disease may be due to damage to the (L)eft recurrent (L)aryngeal nerve by (L)ung cancer at the (L)eft hilum. The (L)eft vocal cord cannot adduct to the midline, causing a prolonged, (L)ow-pitched and "bovine" cough. (Info taken from Macleod's Clinical Examination, pg. 164) Lungs arrange alphanumerically Arrange in Alphabetical Order: Left Lung, Right Lung Arrange lobes in Ascending Order: 2 lobes, 3 Lobes When arranged in such order they match, i.e. Left lung has 2 lobes and right lung has 3 lobes. Pneumonia: Investigations Patients admitted to hospital require investigations to identify the cause and severity of the pneumonia: Serology: some organisms can be diagnosed by detection of a raised IgM antibody by immunoflourescent tests e.g. Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Pneumoniae commonly presents in young adults with generalised features such as headaches and Malaise May precede chest symptoms by 1 - 5 days Treatment is with Macrolides e.g. erythroMycin, or clarithroMycin or azithroMycin for 7-10 days. Extra pulmonary complications will occasionally dominate the clinical picture: Myocarditis, Meningoencephalitis, erythema Multiforme and haemolytic anaemia. (info from Baby K&C pg. 536-7)
  12. 12. Respiratory Failure Type Type 1 PaO2 <8kPa PaCO2 <6.5 Type 2 PaO2 <8kPa PaCO2 >6.5 Type 1 - ONE gas Oxygen is abnormal i.e. PaO2 <8kPA Type 2 - TWO gases are abnormal PaO2 (i.e. O2) and PaCO2 (CO2) CO2 comes before O2 in alphabetical order. Therefore CO2 is different in both types. 1 is smaller than and comes before 2 in numerical order. Type 1 CO2 is smaller than 6.5 Type 2 CO2 is greater than 6.5
  13. 13. Sites.google.com/site/gktmedicalstudent www.facebook.com/KhaledurMedicalMnemonics

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