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Acute Meningococcaemia


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Acute Meningococcaemia

  1. 1. Acute Meningococcaemia A Dermatological Emergency
  2. 2. Definition • Meningococcaemia (meningococcal septicaemia) – The presence of meningococci (bacteria of the species Neisseria meningitidis) in the bloodstream. • Communicable disease • Affects children most commonly • Can kill otherwise healthy children in hours.
  3. 3. Dermatological changes • Non-blanching • Purpuric rash • +/- Oedema • May start at any site • Spreads • Lesions are irregular in size and outline, with a necrotic core.
  4. 4. Diagnosis • Glass test
  5. 5. Pathogenogesis of dermatological findings • Septicaemia... Endotoxin- and cytokine- lead vasculitis... • Microthrombi and haemorrhage in small vessels... • Vascular Injury results in Ecchymosis
  6. 6. Management • ABCDE • Any febrile child with a purpuric rash should be given systemic Antibiotics immediately and admitted urgently to hospital. • IM Benzyl Penicillin 1.2g at GP Surgery • Hospital – ICU if shocked • Contacts
  7. 7. Complications • Septicaemic shock • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) • Multi-organ failure • Death
  8. 8. Conclusion • Acute Meningococcaemia is potentially fatal and should be treated as a medical emergency. • Characteristic rash needs to be promptly recognised in order to reduce mortality. • An example of skin manifestation of a life threatening acute disease process.