chapter  6          Employment Law
Chapter ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you will know the  following:• Key legal issues in employment for sport  man...
Employment Issues• An employee is fired from a job.• A qualified employee is not hired for a job.• A qualified employee is...
Topics of Employment Law•   Employment at will•   Hiring, promotion, and retention•   Sexual harassment•   Employment laws...
The Employment Relationship• Contractual in nature• Involves an express or implied agreement to  perform personal services...
The Employment Relationship            (continued)• Employment-at-will doctrine: Either the employer or  employee may term...
The Employment Relationship           (continued)• Application of federal law: Civil Rights Act,  Americans with Disabilit...
Issue• Is a football player an employee of the university  that he attends and for which he competes?• Coleman v. Western ...
Employment Laws• Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)• Typical health and safety concerns?• Twofold purpose:  1. To r...
Hiring, Promotion, and Retention• Discrimination (laws and protected  classes):  – Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII); E...
Discrimination:   1964 Civil Rights Act (Title VII)• Protected classes  – Race, color, and national origin  – Gender  – Re...
Discrimination• Treating employees or job applicants  unequally on the basis of a personal  characteristic or trait  – How...
Discrimination Claims          Disparate Treatment• Prima facie case  1. A member of a protected class: Race, color,    na...
Defenses• Used to justify a discriminatory practice• Bona fide occupational qualification:  Identifiable characteristics r...
Discrimination Claims           Disparate Impact• Employers’ workforce must reflect the same  percentage of members of pro...
Defenses: Business Necessity• Used to justify a discriminatory effect• A valid business reason for choosing someone  outsi...
Discrimination: Age (ADEA)• Prohibits employment discrimination on the  basis of age for people 40 and over• Applies to bu...
Discrimination: Disabilities• Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990  (ADA) Title I: Employment  – Process     • Prove a ...
Sexual Harassment• Constructive discharge• Title VII of the CVA; EEOC• Elements of sexual harassment:  1. Unwelcome sexual...
Employment Laws• COBRA requires that employer continue  medical coverage (for a limited time) at  option of terminated emp...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Spengler chap06

1,258 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,258
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Spengler chap06

  1. 1. chapter 6 Employment Law
  2. 2. Chapter ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you will know the following:• Key legal issues in employment for sport managers• Relevance of the doctrine of employment at will• Primary issues in employment discrimination• Key legal issues relevant to sexual harassment• The main elements of federal employment legislation
  3. 3. Employment Issues• An employee is fired from a job.• A qualified employee is not hired for a job.• A qualified employee is not promoted.• An employee’s work situation is made so bad that he or she must quit.• An employee is injured during the scope of employment.• An employee is injured due to conditions at the workplace.• Monitoring.
  4. 4. Topics of Employment Law• Employment at will• Hiring, promotion, and retention• Sexual harassment• Employment laws – Employee Health and Safety – Others
  5. 5. The Employment Relationship• Contractual in nature• Involves an express or implied agreement to perform personal services: Agreement should cover salary, work duties, benefits• Who is an employee? A university scholarship athlete? (continued)
  6. 6. The Employment Relationship (continued)• Employment-at-will doctrine: Either the employer or employee may terminate the employment relationship at any time and for any reason.• Exceptions: – Federal legislation – Implied contract – Public policy (continued)
  7. 7. The Employment Relationship (continued)• Application of federal law: Civil Rights Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, OSHA (workplace safety)• Injury on the job: Workers’ compensation – Liability • Tort: Determined by whether act was in scope of employment, vicarious liability • Contract: Agency principles
  8. 8. Issue• Is a football player an employee of the university that he attends and for which he competes?• Coleman v. Western Michigan; Economic Reality Test: 1. The proposed employer’s right to control or dictate the activities of the proposed employee 2. The proposed employer’s right to discipline or fire the proposed employee 3. The payment of “wages” and, particularly, the extent to which the proposed employee is dependent on the payment of wages or other benefits for his daily living expenses 4. Whether the task performed by the proposed employee was an integral part of the proposed employer’s business
  9. 9. Employment Laws• Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)• Typical health and safety concerns?• Twofold purpose: 1. To require employers to meet certain specific, federally mandated safety standards 2. To impose a general duty on employers to keep their workplace safe• Protects employees who file complaints and requires record keeping (11 or more employees)
  10. 10. Hiring, Promotion, and Retention• Discrimination (laws and protected classes): – Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII); EEOC • Race, color, and national origin • Gender • Religion – Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) – Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)• Affirmative action
  11. 11. Discrimination: 1964 Civil Rights Act (Title VII)• Protected classes – Race, color, and national origin – Gender – Religion• State laws may expand the categories of protected classes (e.g., sexual orientation)
  12. 12. Discrimination• Treating employees or job applicants unequally on the basis of a personal characteristic or trait – How do we find that discrimination occurred? – Directly: Employer’s discriminatory words or actions (you were not hired because you are . . .) or policy – Indirectly (most common) • Disparate treatment • Disparate impact
  13. 13. Discrimination Claims Disparate Treatment• Prima facie case 1. A member of a protected class: Race, color, national origin, religion, and gender 2. Applied and was qualified 3. Was rejected by the employer 4. Position remained open or was filled by a person not in a protected class• Victim files a claim with the EEOC or files a lawsuit
  14. 14. Defenses• Used to justify a discriminatory practice• Bona fide occupational qualification: Identifiable characteristics reasonably necessary to the normal operation of a particular business: – Gender: Fitness trainers at a single-sex health club – Race: Not a BFOQ
  15. 15. Discrimination Claims Disparate Impact• Employers’ workforce must reflect the same percentage of members of protected classes as the local labor market• Challenges – Statistical analysis – Defining the local labor market• Prima facie case – Employment practice has a discriminatory effect – Connection shown between the employment practice and disparity
  16. 16. Defenses: Business Necessity• Used to justify a discriminatory effect• A valid business reason for choosing someone outside of protected class – Gender: Because of height, weight, and strength requirements, most firefighters hired were men. – Religion: Because of faith-based days of worship, more hires are not of a particular faith. – Race: Because business had a valid reason to hire only workers with a high school diploma, most workers were nonminority. – Age (under the ADEA): Because a job required strength and endurance, most workers were under the age of 60.
  17. 17. Discrimination: Age (ADEA)• Prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of age for people 40 and over• Applies to businesses with 20 or more employees and whose activities influence interstate commerce• Prima facie case: – 40 years old or older – Applied and was qualified – Rejected in circumstances that implied discrimination
  18. 18. Discrimination: Disabilities• Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Title I: Employment – Process • Prove a disability: Substantially limits one or more major life activities • Prove qualified for the job • Prove denied job because of disability – Reasonable accommodation • Employer finds work responsibilities and environments that place disabled employees in a position to be successful in performing job functions • Undue burden
  19. 19. Sexual Harassment• Constructive discharge• Title VII of the CVA; EEOC• Elements of sexual harassment: 1. Unwelcome sexual advances 2. Not desired by the employee (victim) 3. Conduct that creates a hostile or abusive work environment 4. Can arise from either verbal or physical conduct• Types: – Quid pro quo – Hostile work environment
  20. 20. Employment Laws• COBRA requires that employer continue medical coverage (for a limited time) at option of terminated employee• HIPAA: Prohibitions on exclusion from medical coverage, and medical record confidentiality• FMLA: Unpaid leave of 12 weeks for family or medical reasons• Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): Child labor, overtime, and minimum wage

×