Ecology1 Complete

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Ecology1 Complete

  1. 1. Ecology I. Introduction to ecology
  2. 2. Ecology <ul><li>The science of the study of the relationships between living things and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>The environment could be : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic = other species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonbiological (abiotic) = physical, chemical, geographical, geological factors </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ecological sciences <ul><li>General ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Plant ecology, animal ecology, microbial ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental science </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection and management </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrobiology (water ecosystems) </li></ul><ul><li>Limnology (freshwater ecosystems) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental geology and geography </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications of ecology in medicine <ul><li>Medical ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive medicine (hygiene) </li></ul><ul><li>Social medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Genotoxicology – deals with mutagenic effects of environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Medical parasitology </li></ul><ul><li>Medical microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Alergology </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Medical geology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic and environmental background of diseases INHERITANCE ENVIRONMENT (genetic factors) (environmental factors) Diabetes mellitus Tumor diseases Phenylketonuria Injuries Infections Cystic fibrosis Intoxications Color blindness Deafness
  6. 6. Basic ecological terms
  7. 7. Population <ul><li>A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area or interbreeding and sharing genetic information. </li></ul>Population of species A Population of species B
  8. 8. Ecosystem <ul><li>Ecological community + nonbiological factors </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum system that includes and sustains life </li></ul><ul><li>It must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An autotroph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A decomposer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the chemical elements required by the autotroph and the decomposer </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ecosystem Abiotic factors Community Population of species A Population of species B Population of species C
  10. 10. Food web (trophic „chain“) Producers (green plants, algae, autotrophic bacteria) Primary consumers (herbivores) Secodary consumers (carnivores) Decomposers (heterotrophic bacteria, fungi) Decay of organic matter Release of inorganic nutrients Solar energy
  11. 11. Energy flow within food web Biomass of producers Biomass of primary consumers Loss of energy Loss of energy Biomass of secondary consumers
  12. 12. Interspecific relations – + Competition – + Predation – + Parasitism Species A produces compounds harmful for species B – 0 (+?) Allelopathy (inhibition) Closed relation + + Mutualism („symbiosis“) Free relation + + Protocooperation 0 + Commensalism No relation, neither effects the other 0 0 Neutralism Species B Species A Relation
  13. 13. Commensalism: One species benefits, the other doesn't but is not harmed .
  14. 14. Interspecific relations – + Competition – + Predation – + Parasitism Species A produces compounds harmful for species B – 0 (+?) Allelopathy (inhibition) Closed relation + + Mutualism („symbiosis“) Free relation + + Protocooperation 0 + Commensalism No relation, neither effects the other 0 0 Neutralism Species B Species A Relation
  15. 15. Protocooperation A hermit crab and the sea anemone
  16. 16. Interspecific relations – + Competition – + Predation – + Parasitism Species A produces compounds harmful for species B – 0 (+?) Allelopathy (inhibition) Closed relation + + Mutualism („symbiosis“) Free relation + + Protocooperation 0 + Commensalism No relation, neither effects the other 0 0 Neutralism Species B Species A Relation
  17. 17. Mutualism <ul><li>Giant Clam Tridacna squamosa </li></ul><ul><li>The mantle (soft tissue) within the shell is brightly coloured brown, blue and/or green. This is due to the microscopic algae known as zooxanthellae living inside the tissues which photosynthesise (manufacture food) from sunlight and the waste metabolic products of the clam. They are then &quot;harvested&quot; by the clam as supplementary food. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite being &quot;farmed&quot; this way, the algae are assured of a safe &quot;residence&quot; and a continued supply of nutrients. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Another example of mutualism - lichens
  19. 19. Interspecific relations – + Competition – + Predation – + Parasitism Species A produces compounds harmful for species B . „ antibiosis“ – 0 (+?) Allelopathy (inhibition) Closed relation + + Mutualism („symbiosis“) Free relation + + Protocooperation 0 + Commensalism No relation, neither effects the other 0 0 Neutralism Species B Species A Relation
  20. 20. Antibiosis Epicoccum nigrum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antibiosis test of bacteria
  21. 21. Interspecific relations – + Competition – + Predation – + Parasitism Species A produces compounds harmful for species B . „ antibiosis“ – 0 (+?) Allelopathy (inhibition) Closed relation + + Mutualism („symbiosis“) Free relation + + Protocooperation 0 + Commensalism No relation, neither effects the other 0 0 Neutralism Species B Species A Relation
  22. 22. Parasites in humans <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi (e.g. some parasitic yeasts) </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa or Protista (e.g. Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma) </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms (e.g. liver fluke) </li></ul><ul><li>Roundworms (e.g. ascarid) </li></ul><ul><li>Insects (e.g. mosquito) </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnoids (e.g. tick) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Microbiology and parasitology <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnoids </li></ul>Medical microbiology Medical parasitolgy
  24. 24. Plasmodium – a typical parasite transmitted by mosquito
  25. 25. See you next week! <ul><li>Practicals – a short test in basic ecology is not excluded! </li></ul>

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