A person under the influence of alcohol who have lost control of one’s faculties to such extent as to render him unable to execute safely the occupation in which he was engaged at particular time.So all drunk have taken alcohol but all who have taken alcohol are not drunk.
Request letter from authorized body(police) Consent of the drunk personbut if drunk person reject , then heCan be examined even with thehelp of police
History General examination Laboratory investigation
The history of the relevant event should be obtained from the accused. Enquire about present health status. Past and personal history about alcohol and other addictions(CAGE). Social and family impacts of his/her habits.
Vitals Eyes Skin Mouth General behavior Neurological
General appearance Visual acuity(using the snellen’s chart) Intrinsic muscles : Pupil(Mc Ewan sign) Reaction to light Extrinsic muscles : Convergence Strabismus Nystagmus
General state of mouth, teeth & tongue. Smell of breath should be recorded.
General manner Speech State of dress Self control
Memory and mental alertness Reflexes Handwriting Muscular co-ordination Stance Gait: -Manner of walking - Reaction time to a direction to turn -Manner of turning
During collection of blood spirit must not be used for cleaning the skin Skin is cleaned with soap and water or solution of 1:1000 mercuric chloride Syringe must be free from any trace of alcohol Blood sample should be preserved by addition of 100mg NaF & 30mg potassium oxalate for 10ml blood followed by through shaking
Kozelka and Hine test Cavett test Principle: alcohol containing test substance reduces potassium dichromate solution.
2 samples are required:- 1)as soon as possible following incident 2) after 25-30 minuteAt equilibrium blood :urine alcohol= 1:1.3As the time of 2nd specimen is taken as the time of equilibrium,soConc. In blood=1/1.3 x conc.in urine Disadvantages:-9. Max. concn. In urine reaches 20-25 min later than blood10. After max. concn in blood, Urine conc.= blood conc.+ 20-30 % of blood conc.3.Alcohol may passes on either direction through the lining of the bladder depending on relative concerntration of alcohol in blood & urine
Breathalyser: Gold Standard method Principle: Alcohol absorbs radiation in infra red region of the spectrum and amount of infra red(I) absorbed by the vapour is directly proportional to the amount of alcohol(A) in that vapour. IαA
c/f: 1.Smell of alcohol in breath 2.Slurred speech ,thick & unsteady voice 3.Loss of self control , clearness of intellect, unsteady gait, vacant look & dilated pupils. 4.Incresed pulse rate
Blood alcohol concerntration < 10mg% sober 20-70 mg% drinking 80-100mg% Under the influence 150-300mg% drunk > 400mg% Coma & death
The essentials of forensic medicine and toxicology by Dr. K.S.N. REDDY 28TH edition. Principles of forensic medicine by APURBA NANDY.