Development Of Vertebral Column

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Development Of Vertebral Column

  1. 1. Development of <br />vertebral column<br />By: NURUL AIMAN BT FAISAL<br />RUQAYYAH SYAKIRAH MAZWAR<br />GROUP TUTOR: DR. NISREEN<br />
  2. 2. CONTENTS..<br />1. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF VC<br /><ul><li>FORMATION OF MESENCHYMAL VC
  3. 3. FORMATION OF CARTILAGINOUS VC
  4. 4. OSSIFICATION OF VC</li></ul>2. FATE OF NOTOCHORD<br />3. FATE OF COSTAL PROCESSES<br />4. ANOMALIES OF VC <br />
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  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Stages in development of the vertebral column<br />
  9. 9. Stage 1<br />Stage of formation of mesenchymalvertebral column<br />Time of development: 4th week<br />
  10. 10. 1.Migration of sclerotomes<br />
  11. 11. 2. Differentiation of sclerotomic segments<br />Each segments differentiated into <br />Cephalic part (less condensed)<br />Caudal part (more condensed)<br />
  12. 12. 3. Development of intervertebral discs<br />Densely packed cell move cranially to the middle part of each segments<br />Form peripheral part – annulus fibrosus<br />Enclosed notochord expands and undergo mucoid degeneration <br />Form central part –nucleus pulposus<br />
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  14. 14.
  15. 15. 4. Development of the body of vertebrae<br />Caudal remained part fuse with cephalic part adjacent to it to form mesenchymalcentrum<br />Notochord degenerates and disappears when surrounded by vertebral body<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. 5. Development of neural arch<br />Sclerotomic tissue migrate backward from both side of centrum and surround neural tube.<br />Neural spine forms at meeting point of neural arch<br />Sclerotomic tissue also extends laterally from both sides of centrum form 2 processes<br />Costal (ventral)<br />Transverse (dorsal)<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Stage 2<br />Stage of formation of cartilaginous vertebral column<br />Time of formation: 6th week<br />
  20. 20. Process of chondrification<br />2 centers of chondrification in each centrum appear<br />Fuse together at the end of embryonic period <br />(8th week) form cartilaginous centrum<br />– Centers of chondrification appear in neural arhes and fuse with each other and centrum<br />– Chondrification spreads until a cartilaginous vertebral column formed<br />
  21. 21. Stages of ossification of vertebral column<br />Comprises of 2 stages:<br />1. primary ossification center<br />2. secondary ossification center<br />
  22. 22. Primary ossification center<br />Time of development: at the end of 8th week<br />Number:<br />1. 3 ossification centers are present by the end of embryonic period<br />2. one in the centrum<br />3. one in the neural arch<br />
  23. 23. Process:<br />1. bony halves of the vertebral arch fuse together during the first 3 to 5 years<br />2. the arches articulate with the centrum at cartilaginous neurocentral joints<br />3. these joints dissapear when vertebral arches fuses with the centrum during the 3rd to 6th years<br />
  24. 24. Secondary ossification center<br />Time of development: after puberty<br />Number: the 5 secondary ossification center appears at,<br />1. tip of spinous process<br />2. tip of each transverse process<br />3. superior rim of the vertebral body<br />4. inferior rim of the vertebral body<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Fate of notochord<br />Cranial part: merged with basilar part of occipital bone & posterior part of body of sphenoid<br />Notochord located in the vertebra undergo degeneration and disappear<br />The ones located in between undergo mucoid degeneration to form nucleus pulposus<br />
  27. 27. Fate of the costal process<br />Costal process results from ventrolateral outgrowth of the caudal, denser half of a sclerotome. <br />In the cervical region: form anterior and lateral boundary of the foramen transversum<br />In the thoracic region: form the ribs<br />In the lumbar region: fuse with the transverse process<br />In the upper sacral region: they unite to form the anterior portion of the ala of sacrum<br />
  28. 28. Anomalies of the vertebral column<br />
  29. 29. Spina bifida<br />Cause: incomplete fusion of halves of the vertebral arches resulting in midline defect usually in lumbosacral region<br />Feature: It varies, but generally the small bones (vertebrae) that make up the spine don’t form fully and may have gaps between them.<br />
  30. 30. Hemivertebra<br />Cause: failure of one of the chondrofication center to appear and subsequent failure of half of vertebra to form<br />Feature: defective vertebra produce scoliosis ( lateral curvature) <br />Most likely to cause neurologic problems <br />
  31. 31. Sacralization of 5th lumbar vertebra<br />Cause: 5th lumbar is fused with the sacrum<br />Feature: number of lumbar vertebra is 4 and the sacrum is formed of 6 vertebra<br />
  32. 32. Lumbrization of first piece of sacrum to form separate vertebra<br />Cause: separation of first piece of sacrum to form separate vertebra<br />Feature: number of lumbar vertebra is 6 and the sacrum is only formed of 4 sacral vertebra<br />
  33. 33. Congenital kyphosis<br />
  34. 34. Congenital scoliosis<br />
  35. 35. THE END…<br />

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