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Tackling Hate Speech through media education


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Anne-Claire Orban (Media Animation)
Vlaams Mediawijs Congres

Published in: Education
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Tackling Hate Speech through media education

  1. 1. Mediawijs Congress Tackling hate speech through media education Media Animation- Anne-Claire Orban Gent, 16th November 2016
  2. 2. Plan of the presentation 1. Introduction 2. Study on hate speech and participation in Belgium online french-language press. 3. « Draw me freedom of speech » - educational package 4. Discussion
  3. 3. November 2014 – 2016 Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Program of the European Union
  4. 4. Study on hate speech and participation in Belgium online french-language press
  5. 5. Methodology and steps 1. Hate speech definition – literature review 2. Interviews (15) - journalists, web activists, editors and non-profit organisations working on media and online discrimination 3. Cases studies analysis (5) – 1st January – 31st March 2015 1. Identification of best practices
  6. 6. Hate speech definition • Hate speech <-> freedom of speech • Belgian Anti-racism Law of 31 July 1981 “any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life” • Antidiscrimination Law of 10 May 2007 • Men-women Anti-discrimination Law of 10 May 2007 • Law against Revisionism of 23 March 1995 ènotion of INCITEMENT è Media as host or publisher ?
  7. 7. Summary of moderation choices
  8. 8. Case studies analysis • No relationships between the way an article is written and the hate comments it attracts • Discussion patterns – Mainly two opposing groups – Mainly trading insults • Mechanisms for arguing – Victimisation of one’s own community – Referring to authority or experience – Frequent resort to abuse – Inaccurate generalisation – Condemning trolls è Conversation vs continuous thread (a safety valve) of ‘borderline’ remarks
  9. 9. Tensions as challenges
  10. 10. Online participation Duty Opportunity Bar room talk Public forum Sparking off debate avoiding debate
  11. 11. Moderation Pre Moderation Post Moderation Outsourced Internal Technology Human intervention
  12. 12. Freedom of speech Restricted Absolute Censorship Journalism
  13. 13. Responsibility Media Users
  14. 14. Best practices
  15. 15. Presentation of the educational package
  16. 16. • Based on focus-groups • « Draw me the freedom of speech »: a tool to tackle discriminations and hate speech using cartoons and freedom of speech • 6 units, 1 unit = 2 hours workshop • 1 unit = 1 to 5 activities • 15 to 20 years old Pedagogical tool
  17. 17. • Understand the aims of freedom of speech in the media field today • Analyze the specifics of the genre of caricature • Identify the use of stereotypes • Make young people express themselves using the technics of caricature to combat hatespeech Goals
  18. 18. • 6 units o Unit 1 – The genre of caricature o Unit 2 – Evolution of the genre o Unit 3 – The specificities of caricature o Unit 4 – Focus on stereotypes o Unit 5 – Caricature, freedom of speech and limits o Unit 6 – Interactivity and fight against hate speech • Theoretical book - Pedagogical activities – Resources • Activities of creation: common theme + spreading the outcomes Structure #silencehate
  19. 19. I. Theoritecal content Definition, etymology and forms of caricature, distinction of caricature with the artistic genres of parody and pastiche which are quite close; Definition of the press drawings; Contexts and supports II. Educational activities • Ice-breaker activity : what is a cartoon for me ? • Try to imagine how to caricature personalities and news events from their photography by referring to the definition and characteristics of the genre of the caricature. • Transform current events into caricature by adopting a critical point of view. • Identify the caricature in the press drawings. • Key thread: Identify the characters / protagonists / stakeholders of a problematic situation of discrimination. Unit 1 The genre of caricature #silencehate
  20. 20. Dismantling of the « Jungle Camp » of Calais
  21. 21. I. Theoretical content A criticism of the power; The 19th century, the golden age of caricature; Apparition of popular press, diminution of the satirical press. World Wars: cartoons used by the authorities for propaganda. A return of caricatures provocative since 1970, against the political power. II. Educational activities • Ice breaker activity : Locate caricatures on a timeline • Capturing the protest and denouncing role of cartoons over time • Identify the common societal problem evoked in old caricatures (considered therefore timeless) and current ones. • Identify the social category to which the individual (s) represented in old caricatures belong and search for recent cartoons representing the same social categories. Key thread: Take up the situation / societal debate chosen in unit 1 and translate the situation into other contexts (historical, cultural or social). Unit 2 The evolution of the genre
  22. 22. I. Theoretical content The role of criticism towards society and the political power ; A look at the events, partiality, different representations of the same event; Masking and enhancement; Explanation and illustration of methods and style figures used in images such as caricature; Proposal of a five-step method to analyze cartoons in and out of the journalistic context. II. Educational activities • Ice breaker activity : What is represented? To become aware of the signified-significant relationship within caricatures by the approach of representations. • Link a press cartoon to a publishing context and a readership. • Distinguish the points of view of cartoons and press articles. • Key thread: Create a context for publishing the caricature of the problem situation defined in unit 1 in order to refine the meaning. Unit 3 Specificities of caricature #silencehate
  23. 23. I. Theoretical content Stereotypes: definition, creation, principle of social categorization, functions, distinction with prejudice and discrimination; Necessity in the representation of the world and problematic when it becomes prejudice; Receiving the stereotype; Should we fight stereotypes? : The role of media education. II. Educational activities • Ice breaker activity : Who is it ? Understanding of the evocative force of stereotypes • Understand the part of subjectivity in identifying stereotypes. • Identify the stereotyped representation in the cartoons through an analysis grid. • Understand the creation of a stereotype based on discussion of social categories. • Key thread: To identify the common stereotypes used by the different groups of young people from their caricatures carried out in the preceding steps, to review the stereotypes in the own productions of caricatures if problematic. Unit 4 Focus on stereotypes
  24. 24. #silencehate
  25. 25. I. Theoretical content Freedom of speech in Belgium: principle, freedom and humor, legal framework; Limitations on freedom of speech, definition of hate speech, legal framework in Belgium, "incitement to" and discriminatory language; Caricature & provocation: the role of media education II. Educational activities • Ice breaker activity : Defining Freedom of speech- Common Definition exercice • Identify the various violations on freedom of speech, especially from the messages sent by the cartoonists themselves. • Discuss caricatures that have created polemics from a role-playing game • Key thread - Which limits? Analyze its own cartoons under the approach of freedom of speech and put words on this principle in the current context. Unit 5 The caricature, freedom of speech and limits
  26. 26. I. Theoretical content Caricature as media; The reticular propensity, flow, circulation and volatility of Internet images; The scope of the cartoon; Its decontextualization and reception; Participation and interaction with Internet users, between duty and opportunity, between open bar and agora. II. Educational activities • Ice breaker activity: Without Text: Understand the possible polysemy of a caricature by identifying the type of topic related to a caricature that has been removed from context and potential texts. • Make awareness about the moderation of hate speech in situation of interactivity (forum, Facebook wall, ...) • Key thread :To plan an on-line communication / dissemination campaign of the cartoons carried out during the module and debates on the moderation / management of this campaign • Activité d’amorce : Sans texte : Comprendre la polysémie possible d’une caricature en identifiant le type de sujet Unit 6 Interactivity and fight against hate speech
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  28. 28. Questions or comments?