Udo Lambrecht - (Anàlisi de la contaminació de l'aire per NO2)

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Udo Lambrecht - (Anàlisi de la contaminació de l'aire per NO2)

  1. 1. EUROPEAN CONGRESS OF CITIES AND REGIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF AIR QUALITY BARCELONA, 17 AND 18 JUNE 2010 Analysis of NO2 exceedances in Germany - Baden-Württemberg Causes and future development www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht Udo Lambrecht ifeu – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH -1-
  2. 2. NO2 Concentrations in Germany Situation and Causes www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht -2-
  3. 3. Decrease of NOx concentration because of reductions of NOx emissions NOx concentrations busy urban streets - Baden-Württemberg 240 Development of concentrations in busy urban streets in Baden- Württemberg 1995 - 2009: 200 NOx concentration (NOx = NO + NO2) : 160 => decrease µg/m³ 120 www.ifeu.de 80 Udo Lambrecht 40 0 -3- 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
  4. 4. …but no decrease of NO2 concentration NOx concentrations busy urban streets - Baden-Württemberg 240 Development of concentrations NO in busy urban streets in Baden- NO2 Württemberg 1995 - 2009: 200 NOx concentration (NOx = NO + NO2) : 160 => decrease µg/m³ concentration: NO concentration: 120 => strong decrease www.ifeu.de NO2 concentration: 80 (Air Quality Limits!!!) => no decrease Udo Lambrecht 40 0 -4- 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
  5. 5. Particulary high concentrations were measured in Baden-Württemberg www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht -5- Source: Scholz 2010
  6. 6. Development of NO2 concentrations Sites at busy streets in Germany (selection) Development of the NO2 concentrations (annual average) Sites at busy urban streets in Germany 90 Stuttgart-Mitte-Straße 80 München Stachus 70 Frankfurt Friedberger Landstraße 60 50 [µg/m3] www.ifeu.de 40 Air quality limit 2010 (annual average concentration) 30 Udo Lambrecht 20 10 Source: UBA (Federal environment agency) and data from federal states 0 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 -6- 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
  7. 7. Udo Lambrecht www.ifeu.de -7- 3 NO2 (µg/m ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Stuttgart Am Neckartor 120 Stuttgart Hohenheimer Straße (S) Reutlingen Lederstraße Ost (S) München/Landshuter Allee Tübingen Mühlstraße (S) München/Prinzregentenstraße Ludwigsburg Friedrichstraße (S) Stuttgart-Mitte-Straße München/Stachus Düsseldorf Corneliusstr. Hamburg Max-Brauer-Allee II (Straße) Hagen Graf-v.Galen-Ring Freiburg Schwarzwaldstraße (V) Leonberg Grabenstraße (S) Köln Clevischer Ring 3 Darmstadt-Hügelstraße Hamburg Stresemannstraße Pleidelsheim Beihinger Straße (S) München/Luise-Kiesselbach-Platz Herrenberg Hindenburger Straße (S) Hamburg Habichtstraße Münster Weseler Straße Frankfurt-Friedb.Ldstr. B Hardenbergplatz Wuppertal Gathe Dortmund Brackeler Str. Kiel-Bahnhofstr. Verk. Hannover Verkehr B Neukölln-Karl-Marx-Str. 76 Itzehoe Lindenstr. Hamburg Kieler Straße Cherbourger Straße Nürnberg/Von-der-Tann-Straße Osnabrück-Verkehr Aachen Wilhelmstr. Halle (Westfalen) Lange Str. Wiesbaden-Ringkirche Braunschweig-Verkehr Heidenheim Wilhelmstraße (S) Kassel-Fünffenster-Str. Rostock Am Strande Augsburg/Karlstraße Mainz-Parcusstraße Hürth Luxemburger Straße Dresden-Bergstr. Burgdorf-Verkehr Karlsruhe-Straße Mannheim-Straße Chemnitz-Leipziger Str. Marburg-Univers.Straße Köln Turiner Straße B Neukölln-Silbersteinstr. Ludwigshafen-Heinigstraße B Steglitz-Schildhornstr. Essen Gladbecker Str. Fulda-Petersberger Str. Recklinghausen Bochumer Str. Dortmund Steinstr. Oberaudorf/Inntal-Autobahn Barbis-Verkehr Gießen-Westanlage Potsdam, Großbeerenstr. Markgröningen Grabenstraße (S) Essen-Ost Steeler Str. 2008: 89 sites > 40 µg/m3 Leipzig-Mitte Koblenz-Hohenfelder Straße Frankfurt-Höchst Bremen Verkehr 1 Freiburg Zähringer Straße (S) Augsburg/Königsplatz Leipzig Lützner Str. Duisburg Kardinal-Galen-Str. B Friedrichshain-Frankfurter Allee Würzburg/Stadtring Süd Potsdam Zeppelinstr. Regensburg/Rathaus at many roadside measuring stations in Germany Magdeburg/Damaschkeplatz 3 Magdeburg/Reuterallee Saarbrücken-Verkehr Heppenheim-Lehrstraße Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen Grenzwert 2010: Bielefeld Stapenhorststr.59 Pinneberg Damm Gevelsberg Hagener Str. The NO2 limits, which came into effect in 2010, are exceeded Quelle: UBA 2009 Mainz-Rheinallee Reinheim Göttingen-Verkehr 40 µg/m im Jahresmittel Lübeck Gr. Burgstr. Mainz-Große Langgasse
  8. 8. Causes for high NO2 Concentrations Explications for NO2 concentrations in busy streets: 1. Increased primary NO2 emissions due to increased NO2 /NOx ratio in the exhaust of Diesel cars equipped with oxidation catalysts and urban buses equipped with continuous regenerating traps 2. NO2 formed as a result of atmospheric chemical www.ifeu.de reactions. Nitric oxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas reacts with ozone to form NO2. Udo Lambrecht NO + O3 NO2 + O2 NO2 concentration depends also on NO - E missions and the availability of Ozone -8-
  9. 9. The high NO2 concentrations are due to road traffic in particular diesel vehicles Contribution to NO2 concentrations: Ozon Primary NO2 emissions NO2 Increasing NO2/NOx share NO emission from atmos- in Diesel exhaust (DOC) (local traffic) pheric chemical Contribution Increasing share of Diesel vehicles reactions of Local in Passenger Car fleet traffic NO2 emission NO2 (=> lower fuel consumption – CO2) (local traffic) from primary www.ifeu.de emissions NO-Emissionen NO2 Chemical Reaction with Ozone Urban NO + O3 NO2 + O2 Udo Lambrecht other background sources (“photochemical equilibrium”) Urban Background (Emission other sources); -9-
  10. 10. Despite stronger emission limits for vehicles, „real world“ emissions of NOx and NO2 from diesel cars have increased 1,0 0,9 Emission factors for passenger cars (petrol & diesel) Emissionsfaktoren Otto- und Diesel-Pkw Beispielsituation exemplary traffic situation 0,8 (Handbook Emissionfactors 3.1) 0,7 0,6 NOx NOx (g/km) 0,5 www.ifeu.de 0,4 0,3 0,2 Udo Lambrecht 0,1 NO2 0,0 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 - 10 - Otto-Pkw Diesel-Pkw PC Petrol PC Diesel
  11. 11. Despite stronger emission limits for vehicles, „real world“ emissions of NOx and NO2 from diesel cars have increased 1,0 0,9 Emission factors for passenger cars (petrol & diesel) Emissionsfaktoren Otto- und Diesel-Pkw Beispielsituation exemplary traffic situation 0,8 (Handbook Emissionfactors 3.1) 0,7 0,6 NOx NOx (g/km) 0,5 High level – diesel cars www.ifeu.de 0,4 0,3 0,2 Low level – petrol cars Udo Lambrecht 0,1 NO2 0,0 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 - 11 - Otto-Pkw Diesel-Pkw PC Petrol PC Diesel
  12. 12. Udo Lambrecht www.ifeu.de - 12 - 3 NO2 (µg/m ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Stuttgart Am Neckartor 120 Stuttgart Hohenheimer Straße (S) Reutlingen Lederstraße Ost (S) München/Landshuter Allee Tübingen Mühlstraße (S) München/Prinzregentenstraße Ludwigsburg Friedrichstraße (S) Stuttgart-Mitte-Straße München/Stachus Düsseldorf Corneliusstr. Hamburg Max-Brauer-Allee II (Straße) Hagen Graf-v.Galen-Ring Freiburg Schwarzwaldstraße (V) Leonberg Grabenstraße (S) Köln Clevischer Ring 3 Darmstadt-Hügelstraße Hamburg Stresemannstraße Pleidelsheim Beihinger Straße (S) München/Luise-Kiesselbach-Platz Herrenberg Hindenburger Straße (S) Hamburg Habichtstraße Münster Weseler Straße Frankfurt-Friedb.Ldstr. Stuttgart - Neckartor B Hardenbergplatz Wuppertal Gathe Dortmund Brackeler Str. Kiel-Bahnhofstr. Verk. Hannover Verkehr B Neukölln-Karl-Marx-Str. 76 Stuttgart –Klett Platz Itzehoe Lindenstr. Hamburg Kieler Straße Cherbourger Straße Nürnberg/Von-der-Tann-Straße Osnabrück-Verkehr Aachen Wilhelmstr. Halle (Westfalen) Lange Str. Wiesbaden-Ringkirche Braunschweig-Verkehr Heidenheim Wilhelmstraße (S) Kassel-Fünffenster-Str. Rostock Am Strande Freiburg – Schwarzwaldstr.. Augsburg/Karlstraße Mainz-Parcusstraße Hürth Luxemburger Straße Dresden-Bergstr. Burgdorf-Verkehr Karlsruhe-Straße Mannheim-Straße Chemnitz-Leipziger Str. Marburg-Univers.Straße Köln Turiner Straße B Neukölln-Silbersteinstr. Ludwigshafen-Heinigstraße B Steglitz-Schildhornstr. Essen Gladbecker Str. Fulda-Petersberger Str. Recklinghausen Bochumer Str. Dortmund Steinstr. Oberaudorf/Inntal-Autobahn Barbis-Verkehr Karlsruhe Gießen-Westanlage Potsdam, Großbeerenstr. Markgröningen Grabenstraße (S) Essen-Ost Steeler Str. 2008: 89 sites > 40 µg/m3 Leipzig-Mitte Koblenz-Hohenfelder Straße Frankfurt-Höchst Bremen Verkehr 1 Freiburg Zähringer Straße (S) Augsburg/Königsplatz Leipzig Lützner Str. Duisburg Kardinal-Galen-Str. B Friedrichshain-Frankfurter Allee Würzburg/Stadtring Süd Potsdam Zeppelinstr. Regensburg/Rathaus Magdeburg/Damaschkeplatz 3 Magdeburg/Reuterallee Saarbrücken-Verkehr Heppenheim-Lehrstraße Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen Bielefeld Stapenhorststr.59 Grenzwert 2010: Pinneberg Damm Gevelsberg Hagener Str. Quelle: UBA 2009 Mainz-Rheinallee Reinheim Göttingen-Verkehr Lübeck Gr. Burgstr. 40 µg/m im Jahresmittel Selected Sites – Study for Ministry of Environment Baden-Württemberg Mainz-Große Langgasse
  13. 13. Selected Sites – Study for Ministry of Environment Baden-Württemberg Karlsruhe - Reinhold-Frank-Straße Stuttgart – Am Neckartor 2008: 50 µg/m3 2008: 106 µg/m3 www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht Freiburg – Schwarzwaldstraße Stuttgart - Arnulf-Klett-Platz 2008: 69 µg/m3 2008: 74 µg/m3 ⇒additional ozone - 13 - measurement ⇒additional ozone measurement
  14. 14. Traffic volumes and share of bus and HDV varies depending on locations Calculation of emissions has to consider fleet composition Traffic volumes for each location and considered year: 80.000 72.000 Bus HGV 70.000 LCV PC Diesel Calculation done 60.000 54.400 PC Petrol with TREMOD 48.400 50.000 veh./d 40.000 30.000 24.900 www.ifeu.de 20.000 10.000 0 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Udo Lambrecht Neckar- Schwarz- R.Frank- Mitte tor waldstr. Straße Data for 2008, Source IFEU - 14 - Example: fleet compostition – Light Duty vehicles
  15. 15. The contribution of single vehicle categories to NOx and NO2 emissions varies strongly depending on location. In general Diesel Cars dominate Traffic volumes NOx emissions NO2 emissions 8 80.000 40 Bus 72.000 Bus Bus 7,1 HGV HGV 34 35 HGV 7 LCV 6,5 LCV 70.000 LCV 35 PC Diesel 32 PC Diesel PC Diesel PC Petrol PC Petrol 6 5,6 60.000 PC Petrol 30 54.400 kg/km/d 48.400 5 kg/km/d 50.000 25 veh./d 4 40.000 20 3 2,5 30.000 15 24.900 12 www.ifeu.de 2 20.000 10 1 10.000 5 0 0 0 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Udo Lambrecht Neckar- Schwarz- R.Frank- Mitte Neckar- Schwarz- R.Frank- Mitte Neckar- Schwarz- R.Frank- Mitte tor waldstr. Straße tor waldstr. Straße tor waldstr. Straße Data for 2008, Source IFEU Diesel – Passenger Cars - 15 -
  16. 16. At most of the measuring sites, PCs are main causes of the pollution Contribution Contribution Contributions to NO2 concentrations Primary NO2 – Local atmospheric Chemistry Contributions to NO2 concentrations Vehicle categories 120 120 local primary NO2 Bus local 110 110 HGV local local atmospheric chemistry LCV local 100 100 13,4 urban background PC Diesel local NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] 90 4,7 PC Petrol local NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] 90 urban background 80 50,3 local traffic 80 1,7 70 70 11,9 46,0 25,4 16,7 4,2 60 25,8 60 1,9 50 50 3,8 1,9 18,7 23,8 16,6 www.ifeu.de 40 17,4 40 20,3 10,0 22,1 5,9 25,7 30 30 14,2 7,1 7,6 20 20 33,1 33,1 33,1 33,1 10 20,2 22,5 10 20,2 22,5 Udo Lambrecht 0 0 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Neckar- Schwar- Reinhold- Mitte Neckar- Schwar- Reinhold- Mitte tor zwaldstr. Frank-Str. tor zwaldstr. Frank-Str. - 16 -
  17. 17. Future developments of vehicle emissions and NO2 air quality www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht - 17 -
  18. 18. Techniques to decrease the NOx emissions are available. Large reductions for Diesel Passenger Cars will first appear with Euro 6 www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht - 18 - Source: Volkswagen
  19. 19. Techniques to decrease the NOx emissions are available. Large reductions for Diesel Passenger Cars will first appear with Euro 6 1,0 0,9 Emission factors for passenger cars (petrol & diesel) Emissionsfaktoren Otto- und Diesel-Pkw Beispielsituation exemplary traffic situation 0,8 (Handbook Emissionfactors 3.1) 0,7 0,6 NOx (g/km) 0,5 0,4 www.ifeu.de 0,3 0,2 0,1 Udo Lambrecht 0,0 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 Otto-Pkw Diesel-Pkw - 19 - Source: Schindler 2010
  20. 20. Model projections show, that with an introduction of Euro 5- and Euro 6- vehicles NOx- and NO2-emission levels will further strongly decrease NOx emissions of local traffic 40 -55% -62% -49% -54% 35 kg/km/d 30 Bus HGV 25 LCV 20 PC Diesel PC Petrol 15 10 5 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte NO2 emissions of local traffic www.ifeu.de 9 8 -36% -37% -31% -47% 7 Bus kg/km/d HGV 6 LCV 5 PC Diesel 4 PC Petrol Udo Lambrecht 3 2 1 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe- Stuttgart- Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte - 20 -
  21. 21. Using a Chemical Box Model to calculate future NO2 concentrations Ozon NO emission NO2 (local traffic) from atmospheric chemical reactions Contribution of Local NO2 emission NO2 traffic (local traffic) from primary emissions www.ifeu.de NO2 Chemical box model - windspeed and temperature Urban other - Emission of NO, NO2, background sources - RADM2: 59 substances, 161 reactions Udo Lambrecht (21 photolytic, 140 therm.) - 21 -
  22. 22. Appr. half of the stations which today are > 40 µg/m3 can meet the NO2 air quality limit in the year 2015 in the trend scenario NO2 concentrations 2008-2020 160 -37% -45% -37% -42% 140 NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] local street increment 120 urban background 109 109 100 93 NO2 limit value 2010 77 74 80 73 69 69 www.ifeu.de 59 60 55 52 50 42 45 40 33 40 Udo Lambrecht 20 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 - 22 - Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe Stuttgart- Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte
  23. 23. Appr. half of the German stations which today are > 40 µg/m3 can meet the NO2 air quality limit in the year 2015 in the trend scenario NO2 concentrations 2008-2020 160 -37% -45% -37% -42% 140 NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] local street increment 120 urban background 109 109 100 93 NO2 limit value 2010 ? 77 74 80 73 69 69 www.ifeu.de 59 60 55 52 50 42 45 40 33 40 Udo Lambrecht 20 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe Stuttgart- - 23 - Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte
  24. 24. Also with the legal introduction of Euro 5/6 vehicles, at very high polluted sites the air quality limit will not be met in 2020 NO2 concentrations 2008-2020 160 -37% -45% -37% -42% 140 NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] local street increment 120 urban background 109 109 100 93 NO2 limit value 2010 77 74 80 73 69 69 www.ifeu.de 59 60 55 52 50 42 45 40 33 40 Udo Lambrecht 20 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 - 24 - Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe Stuttgart- Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte
  25. 25. In the future passenger cars will still be the highest contributor for NO2 pollution 120 Bus local HGV local 13 12 LCV local 100 PC Diesel local NO2 annual mean [µg/m³] 5 5 PC Petrol local 8 urban background 5 NO2 limit value 2010 80 Achtung: Nächste Folie noch einmal, 2 47 53 4 mit Otto D - Aufteilung. Nicht benötigte 13 2 - iesel 12 3 16 Folie wieder rauslöschen. 4 60 14 2 4 2 8 51 4 1 4 8 2 1 3 2 1 19 2 4 20 37 4 www.ifeu.de 40 23 1 19 1 1 2 10 25 5 21 20 1 8 6 3 1 5 26 21 15 5 7 3 4 7 19 5 15 20 6 2 33 3 33 31 4 2 31 24 3 24 Udo Lambrecht 21 20 19 23 21 21 13 16 14 10 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 2008 2010 2015 2020 Stuttgart- Freiburg- Karlsruhe Stuttgart- Neckartor Schwarzwaldstraße Reinhold-Frank-Straße Mitte - 25 -
  26. 26. Which abatement strategies could be effective? www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht - 26 -
  27. 27. Approaches to reduce NOx + NO2 emissions from road transport Introduction of vehicles with lower NOx & NO2 emissions (Euro 5/6/VI) Introduction of vehicles that meet Euro 6/VI on the market before the mandatory deadline (early introduction) Limiting/Reducing direct NO2 emissions (Pt/Pd) Ensure that NOx and NO2 emissions from Euro 5/6 cars are reduced in real urban driving situations Petrol cars still have lower NO2- + NOx Emissions compared to Diesel cars Retrofit buses with NOx reduction technology www.ifeu.de Measures to optimise traffic flow in towns and cities (traffic management) Udo Lambrecht Better Public Transport – Non motorized traffic - 27 -
  28. 28. Even with a „Euro 6/VI fleet“, concentrations at „Stuttgart Neckartor“ would still exceed the NO2 limit (40 µg/m3) NOx emissions Stuttgart Neckartor NO2-Konzentrationen Stuttgart-Neckartor 40 35 -55% -41% 120 kg/km/d 30 µg/m³ NO2 HGV local 25 LCV local 20 PC local 13 12 15 100 urban background 5 5 10 8 5 5 0 80 2008 2010 2015 2020 Euro 6/VI NO2 limit value PC LCV HGV Bus 58 4 61 3 www.ifeu.de 60 NO2 emissions Stuttgart Neckartor 56 9 2 2 -45% 41 8 -36 40 7 kg/km/d 6 25 Udo Lambrecht 5 4 20 3 33 31 2 24 21 21 1 0 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 Euro 2008 2010 2015 2020 Euro 6/VI - 28 - 6/VI PC LCV HGV Bus
  29. 29. Early introduction of Euro 6 vehicles First Euro 6 cars are on the market With introduction of Euro 6 vehicles a reduction of NOx and NO2 emissions from automobiles is expected. ⇒ Higher costs (1000 € (?) – need of benefits, tax reduction, subsidies..) Remark Reduction of emissions should not be only met in the homologation cycle but also in reality. This is essential to achieve the air quality limits. www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht - 29 -
  30. 30. Retrofitting of buses and LCV could help to reduce air pollution (NO2) Technology is in principle available - Costs - Reduction efficiency at low temperature - Considering local conditions - Packaging - Homologation procedure – EU.. www.ifeu.de Udo Lambrecht - 30 - Source: Kleinebrahm 2010
  31. 31. What can be done on the part of communities and regions? Measures introduced: - HDV ban - Retrofitting of buses (SCR systems) - Environmental Zones - Improving public transport, non motorized traffic.. - Parking fees... But: Communities with high NO2 concentrations are feeling to be left alone, because they are not able to introduce strong emission limits www.ifeu.de before legally binding. NO2 problems will not be solved with current environmental zone arrangements. The zones schemes focus too closely on PM Udo Lambrecht (not on NO2) PM – NO2 conflict: Retrofitting with Particle traps eventually will increase NO2 emissions - 31 -
  32. 32. Summary Exceedances of NO2 limits at many sites in Germany Traffic – esp. Diesel cars – are the main cause of NO2 pollution Share of different vehicle categories on pollution varies (to consider - measures) Possibility of a postponement of the attainment date is essential The legally binding introduction of Euro 6 passenger cars www.ifeu.de comes too late. Early introduction of Euro 6 could help National, regional and local measures are necessary! Udo Lambrecht => Realistic and affordable measures to reduce NO2 concentrations? - 32 -
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention! And thanks to Udo Lambrecht udo.lambrecht@ifeu.de www.ifeu.de Frank Dünnebeil frank.duennebeil@ifeu.de Alexander Schacht alexander.schacht@ifeu.de Christoph Kessler christoph.kessler@avisogmbh.de Udo Lambrecht Further information: www.no2-tagung2010.de www.no2- - 33 - www.ifeu.de/no2

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