Mejora de la Calidad del Aire
por la limitación de velocidad a
         80 km/h en las
  vías de acceso a Barcelona
      ...
CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LA CIUDAD DE BARCELONA (media anual)
        120                                                      ...
ANNUAL MEAN VALUES OF NO2 and PM10
                                in BARCELONA METROPOLITAN AREA
                        ...
BMA measures to improve the air quality

Barcelona city, is presently taking measures to improve their air quality
   with...
Objective

Evaluate the effect of the measure 80 km/h speed limit in the main
entrance freeways in the Barcelona Metropoli...
Main entrance freeways in the Barcelona city affected by 80 km/h speed limit
                                             ...
7
Methodology:

Observations
(traffic +
air quality)

+

Modelling
(meteo + emissions
+ air quality)




                   ...
Traffic data from CIVICAT: 125 measures stations with hourly data




                                           9
Punt aforament: C-31 a la entrada de Barcelona
Evolució de la setmana del 3-7 de Març del 2008




                       ...
Two types of effects




             The speed limitation helps also to decrease the congestion




                     ...
Changes in traffic intensity

 Totes les estacions on s'aplica la mesura    IMD            Vel
 Mes IMD 2008 Vel 2008 IMD ...
Changes in traffic intensity

        Totes les estacions on s'aplica la mesura dels 80km/h               2009/2007       ...
HERMES 2004: High-Elective Resolution
Modelling Emission System: 1 km2 – 1 h
(Baldasano et al 2008)
                      ...
Traffic emission module: HERMES 2004 (1/2)

 Basic information:                                              Direcció de S...
Traffic emission module: HERMES 2004                                  (2/2)

•   72 vehicles categories (EEA (Environmenta...
Evolution of the nº of speed data with the time

-HERMES2004 (EMICAT2004): 13857 km en Cataluña. Datos TeleAtlas con Vm fi...
WEB page




           18
Model assessment




                   19
Methodological issue
the absolute difference: 2008-2007      OK, any problem

what is the calculation base should it be us...
Emission changes: NOx reduction
Zone 80 km/h: 4.5%     Freeway 80 km/h: 11%




                                     21
Emission changes: NOx reduction
Zone 80 km/h




                                  22
%
                                                    01
                                                       /0
       ...
Emission changes: PM10 reduction
Zone 80 km/h




                                   24
Reduction of fuel consumption:
Zone 80 km/h: 3.8%      Freeway 80 km/h: 10.4%




                                      25
Reduction of fuel consumption:
Zone 80 km/h




                                 26
Analysis of the day-night emissions
                                                                                      ...
28
29
Air quality simulations




                          30
C-31                2007     2008     ∆     ∆%

                                                                          ...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcel...
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Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcelona)

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Jose M. Baldasano - (Millora de la qualitat de l’aire per la limitació de velocitat a 80 Km/h en les vies d’accés a Barcelona)

  1. 1. Mejora de la Calidad del Aire por la limitación de velocidad a 80 km/h en las vías de acceso a Barcelona Authors: •José Mª Baldasano •Pedro Jiménez •Eugeni López •María Gonçalves •Albert Soret
  2. 2. CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LA CIUDAD DE BARCELONA (media anual) 120 4 SO2 (ug/m3) TSP (ug/m3) 110 NO2 (ug/m3) O3 (ug/m3) 100 PM10 (ug/m3) CO (mg/m3) 90 3 80 70 mg/m3 ug/m3 60 2 50 40 30 1 20 10 0 0 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2
  3. 3. ANNUAL MEAN VALUES OF NO2 and PM10 in BARCELONA METROPOLITAN AREA Avaluació VLa de NO2 zona 1 Badalona Barcelona (Sants) 90 Barcelona (Ciutadella) 80 Barcelona (Eixample) 70 Barcelona (Gràcia-Sant Gervasi) _ mitjana anual (µg/m³) Barcelona (Poblenou) 60 Cornellà de Llobregat 50 Gavà (c/ Progrés) 40 Gavà (Parc del Mil.lenni) 30 El Prat de Llobregat L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 20 Santa Coloma de Gramenet 10 Sant Adrià de Besòs 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 any Sant Vicenç dels Horts 90 80 70 _ mitjana anual (µg/m³) 60 50 40 30 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 3
  4. 4. BMA measures to improve the air quality Barcelona city, is presently taking measures to improve their air quality with the horizon of 2010: 1. Introducing blue and green parking toll areas. 2. Increase the pedestrian area. 3. Define areas of low speed circulation < 30 km / h inside of the city. 4. Bicing introduction. 1. General plan with 73 measures for the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (BMA), especially one, 80 km/h speed limit in the main entrance freeways in the city. 4
  5. 5. Objective Evaluate the effect of the measure 80 km/h speed limit in the main entrance freeways in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area in the reduction of the air emissions and in the improvement of the air quality Time phases introduction of the speed limit 80 km/h circulation in the main entrance freeways in the Barcelona metropolitan area ● Phase 1: From December 2007: preliminary introduction of the circulation speed limit to 80 km/h in the main entrance freeways in the city From January 2008: obligatory introduction of the circulation speed limit to 80 km/h in the main entrance freeways in the city ● Phase 2: From January 15 2009: introduction of circulation variable speed with maximum to 80 km/h. It is applied first in the roads C-31 and C-32 and later will extend after the summer to the other roads 5
  6. 6. Main entrance freeways in the Barcelona city affected by 80 km/h speed limit Tramo v. ≤80 Tramo v. 90 Tramo v. 100 Tramo v. 120 previa km/h previa a previa a previa a Vía Tramo pk km/h previa km km min km min km min km min C-31 Gran Vía - Castelldefels 196 - 180 100 16 19.83% 16 2.40 C-32 Nudo Llobr. - Castelldefels 55.5 - 44 120 11.5 14.25% 11.5 2.88 B-20 Cornellà - Sant Boi (80 km/h) 3.5 - 0 80 3.5 4.34% 3.5 0.00 C-32 Nudo Llobregat - Enllaç B-23 59 - 63 100 4 4.96% 4 0.60 B-23/AP-2 Diagonal - Molins de Rei 0.5 - 12 100 11.5 14.25% 11.5 1.73 A-2 Nudo Llobregat - enlace B-23 611.5 - 606 100 5.5 6.82% 5.5 0.83 A-2 enlace B_23 - Sant Vicenç dels Horts 606 - 601 120 5 6.20% 5 1.25 B-10 (ant N II) Nudo Llobregat - Morrot 611.5 - 618 100 6.5 8.05% 6.5 0.98 C-16 Ronda de Dalt - Túnel Vallvidrera 1.8 - 6 90 4.2 5.20% 4.2 0.35 C-58 Nudo Trinitat - Montcada i Reixac (80 km/h) 0 - 1.5 80 1.5 1.86% 1.5 0.00 C-17 Nudo Trinitat - Montcada i Reixac (50-60km/) 0 - 1.5 50-60 1.5 1.86% 1.5 -0.51 B-20 (norte) Nudo Trinitat - Badalona 17 - 22 100 5 6.20% 5 0.75 C-31 Rondas - Badalona 209 - 214 90-100 5 6.20% 2.5 0.21 2.5 0.38 Fuente: Servei Català de Trànsit km totales 80.7 6.5 8.1% 6.7 8.3% 51.0 63.2% 16.5 20.4% Tramo v. ≤80 Tramo v. 90 Tramo v. 100 Tramo v. 120 km/h previa km previa km km/h min previa a km min previa a km min previa a km min Zona Velocitat Variable 80-120 35 43.37% 3.5 0 0 0 20 3.0 11.5 2.9 Zona Eix Llobregat 100 (5,120) 28.5 35.32% 0 0 0 0 23.5 3.5 5 1.3 Zona Tunel Vallvidriera 90 4.2 5.20% 0 0 4.2 0.35 0 0 0 0 Zona Nord 100 (2.5,90) 13 16.11% 3 -0.51 2.5 0.21 7.5 1.1 0 0 Zona 80 km/h 80.7 6.5 -0.51 6.7 0.56 51 7.65 16.5 4.1 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Methodology: Observations (traffic + air quality) + Modelling (meteo + emissions + air quality) 8
  9. 9. Traffic data from CIVICAT: 125 measures stations with hourly data 9
  10. 10. Punt aforament: C-31 a la entrada de Barcelona Evolució de la setmana del 3-7 de Març del 2008 The effect of the speed regulation can be observe analyzing concrete days; the measure allows to avoid punctual congestions 10
  11. 11. Two types of effects The speed limitation helps also to decrease the congestion 11
  12. 12. Changes in traffic intensity Totes les estacions on s'aplica la mesura IMD Vel Mes IMD 2008 Vel 2008 IMD 2007 Vel 2007 2008/2007 1 48197 79 46841 93 2.90% -15.48% 2 50241 79 48828 92 2.89% -14.92% 3 47200 79 49043 91 -3.76% -13.26% 4 51272 78 47415 94 8.14% -16.78% 5 48748 78 52123 91 -6.48% -14.23% 6 45782 75 48108 88 -4.83% -15.26% 7 48809 75 49412 87 -1.22% -14.42% 8 40598 80 41103 95 -1.23% -15.53% 9 46494 78 50021 92 -7.05% -15.22% 10 48107 78 49939 92 -3.67% -14.46% 11 46048 79 49425 92 -6.83% -13.80% 47409 78 48387 92 -1.92% -14.85% Promig estacions on s'aplica la mesura 2008 2007 2007 Ene-Agost 47606 47859 -0.45% 60000 2008 Set-Nov 46883 49795 -5.85% ∆IMD 1-8 ∆IMD-9-11 50000 B-20 -1.95% -5.79% B-10 -0.36% -0.64% AP-7 -1.84% -9.19% 40000 A-2 -0.63% -5.85% C-58 -0.40% -1.06% C-33 -1.83% -3.66% 30000 C-32 -1.92% -8.96% C-31 Sud 4.44% -2.22% 20000 C-31 Nord -4.95% -7.84% C-17 -13.16% -2.25% B-30 -0.07% -0.88% 10000 B-23_AP-2 -4.16% -7.81% Todas estaciones -1.58% -5.33% Estaciones aplicación -0.45% -5.85% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 M es 12
  13. 13. Changes in traffic intensity Totes les estacions on s'aplica la mesura dels 80km/h 2009/2007 2008/2007 Mes IMD 2009 Vel 2009 IMD 2008 Vel 2008 IMD 2007 Vel 2007 IMD VEL IMD VEL 1 42010 77 48197 79 46841 93 -10.3% -17.4% 2.9% -15.5% 2 49818 79 50241 79 48828 92 2.0% -14.1% 2.9% -14.9% 3 48728 78 47200 79 49043 91 -0.6% -14.1% -3.8% -13.3% 4 46507 78 51272 78 47415 94 -1.9% -16.7% 8.1% -16.8% 5 50424 78 48748 78 52123 91 -3.3% -14.9% -6.5% -14.2% 6 47113 73 45782 75 48108 88 -2.1% -17.5% -4.8% -15.3% 7 49367 73 48809 75 49412 87 -0.1% -16.6% -1.2% -14.4% 8 40875 79 40598 80 41103 95 -0.6% -16.7% -1.2% -15.5% 9 46483 78 46494 78 50021 92 -7.1% -15.3% -7.1% -15.2% 10 47749 78 48107 78 49939 92 -4.4% -14.7% -3.7% -14.5% 11 46352 78 46048 79 49425 92 -6.2% -14.7% -6.8% -13.8% Promig 46857 77 47409 78 48387 92 -3.1% -15.7% -1.9% -14.9% 13
  14. 14. HERMES 2004: High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System: 1 km2 – 1 h (Baldasano et al 2008) Database information management Biogenic emissions On road, ships and Industry and electric Residential and aircrafts traffic generation commercial • Land use map • Emission factors and • Roads (urban streets, roads, • Location (point/area) • Density population map biomass etc.), LTO cycles and ships routes • Production / electric • Combustibles consume • Meteorological • Hourly, weekly and monthly generation • Emission factors information (air temperature, profiles • Emission factors – energetic • Solvent use solar radiation) • Distribution of the vehicles intensity • Waste generation • Velocity by road type • Chimney height / diameter • Meteorological information (air temperature) • Type of combustibles Emission computation and speciation BVOCs NOx, VOCs, CO, SO2, particulate NOx, VOCs, CO, SO2, particulate NOx, VOCs, CO, SO2, particulate matter, CO2, CH4 and N2O matter, CO2, CH4 and N2O matter, CO2, CH4 and N2O Speciation Management of the emission information Management of emission data for air quality modelling • Hourly aggregation of archives (4x4 km, 1x1 km grid size) • Visualization and analysis of the results • Height desaggregation (vertical layers) • Management information tool • Database resolution (1 - 4 km grid size) • Generation of netCDF emission files 14
  15. 15. Traffic emission module: HERMES 2004 (1/2) Basic information: Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat Ajuntament de Barcelona • “Araña de Tráfico” Barcelona 2004. Trafico map 2004 Ministerio Fomento Streets, Roads, Highway • IMD. • Composition of vehicles categories • Circulation speed (VMC). • Hourly, weekly and monthly cycles Mensuales. Metodology Model: Ntziachristos and Samaras (2000)/EEA (2001) y CEPMEIP (2003) Information: • More than 2.700 points with data of IMD and VMC of the main roads (urban and intercity) of Barcelona. • 12 cycles schedules for working and holidays days. • Composition of the vehicles categories of Barcelona, discriminated against five areas 15
  16. 16. Traffic emission module: HERMES 2004 (2/2) • 72 vehicles categories (EEA (Environmental European Agency) según Ntziachristos and Samaras, 2000 )) • Emission factors: function of the circulation speed, of the antiquity, vehicle type and of the fuel used (CORINAIR) • Vehicles categories for Spain, specific for Barcelona, Madrid, and others cities • Barcelona and Madrid: specific data for circulation areas The emissions are calculated for each cell of 1 km2 taking the tracts understood inside the cell and considering the vehicles categories and the emission factor for each one of the established categories. Taking in account hourly speed and traffic intensity in BMA 16
  17. 17. Evolution of the nº of speed data with the time -HERMES2004 (EMICAT2004): 13857 km en Cataluña. Datos TeleAtlas con Vm fija. 133700 tramos -HERMES2004: 118087 km en toda España. Datos TeleAtlas con Vm fija. 828740 tramos (incluidos islas) -Estudio 80 km/h: Considerando el dominio 148x148km: 8202 km TeleAtlas de los cuales hay 333 km con datos CIVICAT horarios Considerando el dominio Zona-1: 28x31=896 km2, 1731 km TeleAtlas de los cuales hay 297 km con datos CIVICAT horarios CATALUÑA: km Velocidades 10000000 EMICAT2000-CAT 6224 16 HERMES2004-CAT 13857 133700 Nº Puntos de información con velocidad 1000000 CIVICAT2008-Z1 1731 2628000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 EMICAT2000-CAT HERMES2004-CAT CIVICAT2008-Z1 Evolución de la dimensión de los datos de velocidad 17
  18. 18. WEB page 18
  19. 19. Model assessment 19
  20. 20. Methodological issue the absolute difference: 2008-2007 OK, any problem what is the calculation base should it be used? the percents will be different ¡¡¡ 1. Calculation domain ? 2. Zone 80 km/h ? 3. Freeway 80 km/h ? 20
  21. 21. Emission changes: NOx reduction Zone 80 km/h: 4.5% Freeway 80 km/h: 11% 21
  22. 22. Emission changes: NOx reduction Zone 80 km/h 22
  23. 23. % 01 /0 1/ 20 -40.00% -30.00% -20.00% -10.00% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 08 15 /0 1/ 20 08 29 /0 1/ 20 08 12 /0 2/ 20 08 26 /0 2/ 20 08 11 /0 Zone 80 km/h: 3.8% 3/ 20 08 25 /0 3/ 20 08 08 /0 4/ 20 08 22 /0 4/ 20 08 06 /0 5/ 20 08 20 Emission changes: PM10 reduction /0 5/ 20 08 03 /0 6/ 20 08 17 /0 23 6/ 20 08 01 /0 Días 7/ 20 08 Freeway 80 km/h: 11% 15 /0 7/ 20 08 29 /0 7/ 20 08 12 /0 8/ 20 08 26 /0 8/ 20 08 09 /0 9/ 20 08 23 Reducción relativa de las emisiones de PM10 en 2008 respecto 2007 /0 9/ 20 08 07 /1 0/ 20 08 21 /1 0/ 20 08 04 /1 1/ 20 08 18 /1 1/ 20 08 PM10
  24. 24. Emission changes: PM10 reduction Zone 80 km/h 24
  25. 25. Reduction of fuel consumption: Zone 80 km/h: 3.8% Freeway 80 km/h: 10.4% 25
  26. 26. Reduction of fuel consumption: Zone 80 km/h 26
  27. 27. Analysis of the day-night emissions Variació de les emisions de PM10 2008-07 - A les vies afectades per la mesura Variació de les emisions de NOx 2008-07 - A les vies afectades per la mesura 0.002 0.04 0.001 0.02 0.000 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 -0.001 0.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 -0.002 Mg PM10/h Mg NOx/h -0.02 -0.003 -0.04 -0.004 -0.005 -0.06 -0.006 -0.08 -0.007 -0.10 -0.008 Dia Variació NOx diürn Variació PM10 diürn Dia Variació NOx nocturn Variació PM10 nocturn Variació de les emisions de NOx 2008-07 percentual - A les vies afectades per la mesura Variació de les emisions de PM10 2008-07 percentual - A les vies afectades per la mesura 10% 10% 5% 5% 0% 0% 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 -5% -5% % % -10% -10% -15% -15% -20% -20% -25% -25% Variació NOx % diürn Dia Variació PM10 % diürn Dia Variació NOx % nocturn Variació PM10 % nocturn 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Air quality simulations 30
  31. 31. C-31 2007 2008 ∆ ∆% NO2( g/m3) 22.0 20.9 -1.2 -5.7 PM10( g/m3) 12.0 11.7 -0.3 -2.4 AP-2 2007 2008 ∆ ∆% NO2( g/m3) 30.4 28.7 -1.7 -6.1 PM10( g/m3) 16.2 15.6 -0.5 -3.2 Intrarondes 2007 2008 ∆ ∆% NO2( g/m3) 33.0 32.7 -0.3 -0.9 A-2_C-32 2007 2008 ∆ ∆% PM10( g/m3) 15.8 15.7 -0.1 -0.5 NO2( g/m3) 36.9 35.5 -1.4 -4.2 PM10( g/m3) 17.1 16.7 -0.4 -2.3 C-32 2007 2008 ∆ ∆% NO2( g/m3) 18.4 17.4 -0.9 -5.1 PM10( g/m3) 11.1 10.9 -0.2 -1.7 31

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