Tackling air pollution in Berlin: the low emission zone
         & other transport related measures

                     ...
Introduction

Berlin: a few facts...

       economic stagnation/slow
       growth due to severe
       structural change...
Introduction
                              assessing non-attainment

AQ assessment in Berlin                 modelled NO2 ...
Introduction
                                                                                                             ...
Clean Air Plan Berlin                               list of actions

Large Stationary sources:
    Best Available Technolo...
Clean Air Plan Berlin                       transport measures


Cleaner vehicles and fuels…..
  cleaning up the municipal...
Clean Air Plan Berlin                       transport measures



particle filter in passenger cruise ships
             p...
Clean Air Plan Berlin                       transport measures


  impact of cleaning up the municipal fleet and vehicles
...
LEZ Berlin                                           reasons
Problems in Berlin…
  again (after 2 years compliance) excess...
Low Emission Zones in Europe

LEZ found in:
   Sweden:        5
   Denmark:       5
   UK:            2
   Germany:       ...
Berlin LEZ                              emission citeria


                                        Stage 1: since 1.1.2008...
LEZ Berlin
                                                                          forecasted impact
…based on model sce...
LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                          approach

1. impact on traffic flows?...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                    impact on traffic

impact of the LEZ...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                                                        ...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                 impact on fleet composition
           ...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                                                        ...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                                                       p...
LEZ – real impact analysis
                                      pollution concentration

identifying the impact on the ai...
LEZ – real impact analysis
                                   pollution concentration

         based on the results of th...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                             soot concentration

       ...
Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis
                                                                                        ...
LEZ                                    résumeé
no visible shift of traffic into surrounding areas
significant change in th...
LEZ                               pros & cons
Objective:
   faster modernisation of vehicle fleet
Criteria: When should a ...
LEZ                          what’s needed
  (national) vehicle classification scheme in force in time
   EU-wide regulati...
Berlin transport strategy
                                                 portfolio of measures

                        ...
Berlin‘s transport strategy
                     improving cycling




                                                   ...
Berlin‘s transport strategy
                     improving cycling




                                        components:...
Berlin‘s transport strategy
                     improving cycling




                                                   ...
1           Environment
Sustainable Urban Mobility - The Berlin Strategy




• Most efficient measure:
  Promotion of bicy...
Clean Air plan                         transport planning

planned enlargement of areas with parking fees (~2€/hour in cen...
Berlin‘s transport strategy
                                           current trend in modal split




  used means of tr...
Berlin transport strategy
                                         impact on traffic volumes


trend of traffic volumes 20...
Berlin‘s transport strategy
                                       expected traffic reduction

Änderung der Kfzvolume in
c...
LEZ & transport measures
                                                                                          expecte...
traffic management measures
                                       potential impact on air quality

shift modal split from...
urban air quality management
                                                                resumeé

    a lot can be don...
urban air quality management
                                                                                             ...
Thanks
                                     for
                                 listening!

For more information on
   Be...
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Martin Lutz - (Abordar la contaminació de l’aire a Berlín: la Zona de Baixa Emissió i altres mesures relacionades amb el transport)

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Martin Lutz - (Abordar la contaminació de l’aire a Berlín: la Zona de Baixa Emissió i altres mesures relacionades amb el transport)

  1. 1. Tackling air pollution in Berlin: the low emission zone & other transport related measures Martin Lutz Senate Department for Health, Environment and Consumer Protection Directorate III, Environment Policy  current compliance situation  source analysis  why a low emission zone (LEZ)?  LEZ impact analysis  other transport measures & their likely impact  problems, pros & cons 1 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  2. 2. Introduction Berlin: a few facts... economic stagnation/slow growth due to severe structural changes after fall of the wall per capita income 30% below Hamburg ageing population, but slower process than elsewhere low commuter numbers & car density 2 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  3. 3. Introduction assessing non-attainment AQ assessment in Berlin modelled NO2 in main roads 2005 20% of all main road sections in non-attainment 3 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  4. 4. Introduction source analysis origin of kerbside PM2.5 and NO2 in Berlin sources of roadside sources of roadside PM2.5 pollution NO2 pollution local traffic resuspension+ resuspension + regional background other sources 4% resuspension + resuspension + abrasion by traffic abrasion traffic ca 7% waste treatment and abrasion by traffictraffic abrasion by 2% disposal 4% 4% road transport road transport combustion in 0% 7% manufacturing road transport road transport other mobile sources 9% 9% industry 2% other sources and machinery 4% production processes 7% 8% additional combustion 1% urban non-industrial solvent and other product use background combustion 5% local traffic urban background 3% combustion in energy and tranformation 54% combustion in energy industries 1% production processes and tranformation industries traffic 1% 9% 32% combustion in manufacturing combustion in manufacturing road transport road transport 12% non-industrial large-scale industry 0% resuspension+ resuspension + abrasion by traffic abrasion traffic 12% other sources agriculture combustion 10% background 3% 11% 4% Basis: NOx modelling Berlin, 2007 homemade vehicle tailpipe contribution 4 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  5. 5. Clean Air Plan Berlin list of actions Large Stationary sources: Best Available Technology; already largely exhausted Domestic heating: cleaner fuels (nat. gas), heat&power cogeneration promotion of energy saving measures renewables (but strict emission limit values for wood fired burners) option: stricter emissions standards for wood heating systems (< 10 mg/m³) synergies with new Berlin energy program aim: 25% less CO2-emission by 2010 (relative to 1990) ☺ only few single coal fired stoves left (<2% of all flats); Construction: Guidelines & information about dust abatement measures Regulations based on Berlin‘s regional Pollution Control Act Transport: Cleaner vehicles and fuels (CRT retrofit & CNG) municipal vehicle fleet (CRT retrofit & CNG) filter retrofit of passenger cruising ships LEZ (low emission zone) Less traffic through sustainable transport- and city planning master plan transport, “StEP” Optimized traffic management Speed limits (30 km/h) Ban of heavy duty vehicles in single streets ... 5 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  6. 6. Clean Air Plan Berlin transport measures Cleaner vehicles and fuels….. cleaning up the municipal vehicle fleet particle filter: police, buses 1000 old buses retrofitted with CRT since 1999 full CRT coverage by 2008 compressed natural gas & biogas: 25% of garbage collection vehicles, 50% by 2008 15 buses running on CNG and 5 on hydrogen SCRT retrofit for public buses retrofit programme of about 100 buses planned CNG (compressed natural gas) for private & commercial Diesel vehicles 1000 private cars: Gas-vouchers & tax refunds 1000 taxis and driving schools: funding of new CNG-vehicles 100 HGVs&LGVs: funding of new vehicles running on CNG network of natural gas refilling stations (14 stations by now) increasing share of biogas 6 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  7. 7. Clean Air Plan Berlin transport measures particle filter in passenger cruise ships pilot project 2008-2010: • retrofit of 3 vessels with different filter systems • monitoring of filter efficiency, performance and handling during routine operation 7 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  8. 8. Clean Air Plan Berlin transport measures impact of cleaning up the municipal fleet and vehicles operators of 100 largest logistic firms... all vehicles all vehicles Euro IV + PF Euro IV + PF busses Euro V busses Euro V 0,0% expected emission reduction in % of -10,0% -20,0% big fleets of the trend scenario municipal 100 largest fleet delivery -30,0% services and logistic firms -40,0% -50,0% NOx -60,0% exhaust-PM total-PM -70,0% implementation 2010 8 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  9. 9. LEZ Berlin reasons Problems in Berlin… again (after 2 years compliance) excess of PM10 widespread excess of NO2 (up to 50%) in central main roads local scale traffic restrictions merely shift problem in other roads short-term temporary traffic restrictions not effective during pollution episodes previous measures insufficient modernisation of municipal fleet, funding scheme for CNG-vehicles shift to clean transport modes by traffic planning Solution for wide-spread traffic-related pollution… LEZ: selective traffic ban for high polluting vehicles large-scale: not only in single roads but covering the Umwelt whole (potential) non-attainment area durable: not only on days in excess of 24h-limit value transition period (Berlin > 2 ½ years) prior to the start ensures proportionality Berlin: no general exemptions for residents and commercial traffic some individual temporal exemptions possible 9 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  10. 10. Low Emission Zones in Europe LEZ found in: Sweden: 5 Denmark: 5 UK: 2 Germany: 40 : Czech: 1 sa tion oni ries g h arm ego ofittin Austria 3 (motorways) no e cat eria retr But ehicl for Italy: 7 regions n crit dards on v missio l stan Netherlands 17 g on e chnica bellin e la Hungary 1 planned on t ehicle ns g More information: on v affic si r Low Emission Zone in Europe on t Network (LEEZEN): www.lowemissionzones.eu 10 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  11. 11. Berlin LEZ emission citeria Stage 1: since 1.1.2008 Diesel vehicles: at least Euro 2 or Euro 1 & retrofit Gasoline vehicles: at least Euro 1 7% of vehicle fleet affected Stage 2: since 1.1.2010 Diesel: Particle emission Euro 4: cars: Euro 3 + particle filter or better Area: goods vehicles: also retrofit of about 88 km² Euro 1-3 towards Euro 4Particle (Berlin total area: 892 km²) 10% of the vehicle fleet affected Inhabitants: about 1 Million (Berlin total: 3,4 Mio) 11 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  12. 12. LEZ Berlin forecasted impact …based on model scenario calculations expected impact compared to „business as usual“ without intervention LEZ stage 1, 2 S - UM 43 as from 2008: LEZ stage 2, 4 S - UM 43 as from 2010: impact on emissions impact on emissions ~15% less PM-exhaust emissions ~50% less PM-exhaust emissions cars/LDVs: ~35% cars/LDVs: ~10% HDVs: ~15% HDVs: ~5% ~10% less PM & NOx- total traffic emissions impact on pollution levels impact on pollution levels ~3% decrease of PM10 annual mean ~5-10% decrease of PM10 annual mean ~5 decrease in days >50 g/m³PM10 ~4% decrease of NO2 annual mean ~10-15 less days >50 g/m³PM10 ~10.ooo less residents living along main roads in the LEZ in non- compliance with PM standards (20-25% reduction) 12 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  13. 13. LEZ – real impact analysis approach 1. impact on traffic flows? has road traffic decreased within the LEZ? has road traffic been re-routed to areas outside the LEZ? has road traffic been avoided? monitoring of traffic flows 2. effect on the vehicle fleet composition? change in the characteristic of the registered vehicle fleet? change in the real fleet on the roads in & outside the LEZ? evaluation of vehicle registration data base monitoring of real vehicle fleet 3. impact on the pollution emissions from road traffic? calculation of the exhaust emissions comparision with default fleet and situation before/after LEZ 4. impact on the air quality? evaluation of the routine air quality monitoring data: PM10, PM2.5, NO, NO2, NOx evaluation of extra AQ measurements: PM-species (EC, OC, sec. PM, passive samplers) measurements: PM- samplers) dispersion modelling with LEZ-related emission reduction (not yet done) 13 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz Slide
  14. 14. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis impact on traffic impact of the LEZ on traffic volumes in the city trend of traffic volumes 2002-2008 inside and outside of the low emission zone 2002 = 100% low emission zone Conclusions + inside LEZ outside LEZ • general decrease of traffic volumes 2002 100% 99,9% 95,9% 97,3% 97,6% 98,2% 92,1% 91,1% und 2009. • stringer decrease 100% 99,2% 97,5% 95,5% 94,9% 93,2% 89,6% 90,1% outside LEZ • larger reduction between 2007 und 2008 is LEZ- independent • no visible traffic 95,7% 88,3% 95,7% 91,0% 95,1% 91,2% deviation due to LEZ 100% 87,9% 100% 97,1% 91,8% 97,5% 90,9% 93,4% 90,2% 94,6% 14 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  15. 15. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis impact on fleet composition Share of registered vehicles with 4 S - UM 43 Positive impact of Berlin's LEZ on the registered vehicle fleet 120% Share of registered vehicles with green sticker 100% 92% UWZ 96% 90% all cars 91% 88% Trend 90% 85% 80% 81% UWZ 60% 60% 59% 49% 54% 48% 40% Diesel cars Trend 37% 39% UWZ 31% 20% 25% 20% 19% Trend 17% goods vehicles 1% LEZ stage 1 LEZ stage 2 0% Jan 2006 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 15 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  16. 16. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis impact on fleet composition before-after comparison of the fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee Fleet characteristic at Frankfurter Allee based on number plate recognition before and after introduction of Berlin‘s LEZ in 2008/9 2% 100% 3% 9% 17% 18% 90% 22% 23% 34% 29% 32% 80% 44% 36% 40% 53% 52% 50% 70% 62% 73% 27% 36% 58% 60% 40% 4 - green 32% 50% 50% 36% 3 - yellow 41% 26% 29% 47% 2 - red 32% 40% 1 - no sticker 23% 31% 33% 39% 30% 21% 28% 26% 20% 24% 20% 37% 21% 20% 15% 30% 28% 10% 23% 16% 10% 17% 11% 10% 10% 6% 8% 7% 6% 5% 7% 4% 5% 6% 0% Feb Sep Sep Trend Feb Sep Sep Trend Feb Sep Sep Trend Feb Sep Sep Trend 07 08 09 09 07 08 09 09 07 08 09 09 07 08 09 09 before no before no before no before no LEZ LEZ LEZ LEZ LEZ UWZ LEZ UWZ Pass. Cars Diesel LGV Diesel HGV 3,5 - 7,5 t HGV > 7,5 16 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  17. 17. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis NOx emissions LEZ impact: change of NOx emissions from road traffic based on fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee (new emission factor data base HBEFa 3.1) (new 10.000 2007 9.000 Trend 2008 without LEZ -15% Trend 2009 without LEZ 8.000 NOx vehicle emissions [t/a] LEZ 2008 -19% LEZ 2009 7.000 status of Sept 09 6.000 5.000 4.000 3.000 2.000 1.000 0 Total Cars LGV HGV 17 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  18. 18. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis particle tailpipe emissions LEZ impact: change of particle exhaust emissions based on fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee (new emission factor data base HBEFa 3.1) 400 2007 Particle vehicle exhaust pipe emissions [t/a] 350 -21% Trend 2008 without LEZ Trend 2009 without LEZ 300 LEZ 2008 -35% LEZ 2009 250 200 150 100 50 0 Total Cars LGV HGV emissions extrapolated to the entire main road network based on the fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee (without DPF retrofit, only warm emissions, no cold start impact) 18 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  19. 19. LEZ – real impact analysis pollution concentration identifying the impact on the air quality Problems: strong dependency of pollution concentrations on weather conditions additional dependency of emissions and pollution levels on local traffic conditions approach: evaluation of routine air quality data differentiation kerbside – urban background – periphery evaluation of additional PM speciation data, e.g. black carbon taking account of changes in the traffic volumes compare with trend in dispersion related meteo parameters using the results of a source apportionment study on PM2.5 in 2007 and model results for NO2-source analysis applying the calculated reduction of PM10- & NOx- emissions on the measured & modelled %-contribution of traffic to total pollution levels 19 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  20. 20. LEZ – real impact analysis pollution concentration based on the results of the PM2.5-source apportionment in a main road in Berlin‘s city centre applying the emission reduction soot + organic of the LEZ material from traffic outside vehicle exhaust Berlin in Berlin 9% of -35% EC & OC secondary 14% particles from - 4.9% PM2,5 NOx- emissionen of -19% NOx from traffic in Berlin - 1.5% PM2,5 8% other sources Σ = - 6.4 % PM2,5 resuspension + outside Berlin abrasion from other sources in 47% traffic in Berlin Berlin 7% 15% related to PM10: - 4.5 % PM10 (70% PM2,5 in PM10) largely independent from traffic and meteo changes 20 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  21. 21. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis soot concentration traffic-adjusted trend of soot levels in main roads within and outside of the low emission zone 140% 220% 130% LEZ introduced n o s e p r i d f t a v l 120% 118% 119% 200% 113% 100% 100% 180% share of weather conditions with low wind speed <2.4m/s,2007=100% 86% Radon measurements 2007=100% 80% 160% share of dry days 2007=100% 84% mean of 10 sites within the LEZ, traffic adjusted - 60% 138% 140% % 0 1 = 7 2 131% - e t a p r m l s d 40% 116% 113% 115% 114% 114% 120% 106% 102% 100% 100% 100% 20% 100% l s e v E n C a m u f o d r t i parameters as a measure for bad meteorological dispersion 0% 80% 2005 2006 2007 2008 21 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  22. 22. Berlin LEZ – real impact analysis NO2-concentration traffic adjusted trend of Berlin's contribution to NO2- levels in main roads in and outside of the low emission zone urban contribution = kerbside levels-upwind levels at city periphery (ca 10 -12 µg/m³) 60 200% LEZ urban- contribution of NO2 – [µg/m³] introduced 50 180% -8% 40 160% share of periods with low wind <2.4m/s, 2007=100% Radon levels 2007=100% urban contribution averaged over 10 passive samplers inside LEZ 30 138% urban contribution averaged over 10 passive samplers outside LEZ 140% 131% 20 113% 114% 120% 106% 102% 100% 100% 10 100% 0 80% 2005 2006 2007 2008 5-10% decrease also recorded with 4 automatic instruments at raffic sites 22 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  23. 23. LEZ résumeé no visible shift of traffic into surrounding areas significant change in the vehicle fleet composition: fewer „dirty“ vehicle (<E1): LGV/HGV: only 4-7% instead of 30 % more clean vehicles (E4): cars 73% instead of 44%, lorries 50% instead of 17-23% decrease of traffic emissions on top of trend : exhaust particles: - 35 %; NOx: - 19 % LEZ is most effective single measure, if based on ambitious emission criteria 4 S - UM 43 covering a larger area introduced not too late ~2010-12 exemptions are limited possible benefit for the air quality 10% reduction of PM10/2.5 & NO2, black carbon decrease ~20% 10-15 less excess days > 50 µg/m³ PM10 23 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  24. 24. LEZ pros & cons Objective: faster modernisation of vehicle fleet Criteria: When should a LEZ be considered? Umwelt high contribution of urban traffic-related air pollutants air quality limit values exceeded in many urban streets low proportion of through traffic or no alternative routes Advantages: ☺ aims specifically at the highest emitting vehicles ☺ rewards vehicle owners who invested in clean vehicles ☺ reduces the emission of the overall vehicle fleet all over the LEZ decrease in all streets decrease of urban background concentrations decreasing urban population exposure ☺ proven benefit for air quality ☺ controls the most hazardous component of PM ( black carbon) Disadvantages: financial burden for owners of high emitting vehicles in particular for small business in Germany: every car owner has to buy a sticker to facilitate control administrative effort for granting individual exemptions 24 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  25. 25. LEZ what’s needed (national) vehicle classification scheme in force in time EU-wide regulation !? national/EU technical criteria for retrofit systems to be set early EU-wide regulation, at least cross-border compatibility!! prohibit increase of NO2-emissions !! EU/national sufficient market coverage for retrofit kits, in particular for commercial vehicles economic incentives national/local tax discounts, funding for cleaner/retrofitted vehicles (with particle trap, CNG, hybrid, etc.) stricter vehicle emission standards EU ( EU-wide regulation !!) sufficiently long transition period few exemptions from traffic ban local intensive public information effective enforcement & sanctions But, LEZ alone not sufficient, needs to be supplemented by… 25 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  26. 26. Berlin transport strategy portfolio of measures ic h traff throug Promotion of sustainable g -ro utin transport modes & car sharing re - extra bus lanes re-allocation of road space in - traffic light priority for bus favour of cyclists & pedestrians Speed limits & tram Parking management Traffic bans traffic light synchronisation optimising vehicle flow 26 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  27. 27. Berlin‘s transport strategy improving cycling 27 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  28. 28. Berlin‘s transport strategy improving cycling components: 28 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  29. 29. Berlin‘s transport strategy improving cycling 29 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  30. 30. 1 Environment Sustainable Urban Mobility - The Berlin Strategy • Most efficient measure: Promotion of bicycle traffic, “Zero emission vehicle”. • Bicycle traffic in combination with public transport eliminates the “speed gap” to cars 30 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz Folie 20
  31. 31. Clean Air plan transport planning planned enlargement of areas with parking fees (~2€/hour in central areas) Vorhandene areas existing Bewirtschaftungsgebiete future enlargement Potenzielle Erweiterungsgebiete 31 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  32. 32. Berlin‘s transport strategy current trend in modal split used means of transport in % public motor on foot by bike transport vehicles 32 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  33. 33. Berlin transport strategy impact on traffic volumes trend of traffic volumes 2002-2008 inside and outside of the low emission zone 2002 = 100% + inside LEZ outside LEZ -10% 100% 99,9% 95,9% 97,3% 97,6% 98,2% 92,1% 91,1% 100% 99,2% 97,5% 95,5% 94,9% 93,2% 89,6% 90,1% 33 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  34. 34. Berlin‘s transport strategy expected traffic reduction Änderung der Kfzvolume in change in der Kfz-Belastung Änderung traffic -Belastung Anzahl Kfz pro Szenarioto gegenüber Szenario 1 relation 3 a trend scenario Szenario 3 gegenüber Szenario 1 durchschnittlichem W erktag 25.000 50.000 75.000 100.000 Zunahme Szenario 3 increase gegenüber Szenario 1 decrease 31 Abnahme Szenario gegenüber Szenario 34 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  35. 35. LEZ & transport measures expected impact impact of transport planning („StEP“) and LEZ Emission reduction in relation to the trend scenario 2010 all Diesel vehicles Euro III + particle filter(PF) 0,0% expected emission reduction in % of the trend -10,0% extra benefit -20,0% of less traffic scenario -30,0% -40,0% -50,0% NOx exhaust-PM -60,0% total-PM implementation 2010 35 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  36. 36. traffic management measures potential impact on air quality shift modal split from motor traffic to clean transport modes Berlin‘s planning objective: -10% less motor traffic in 10-15 years results in up to -10% NO2, 3-4% less total PM10 optimizing traffic flows (progressive signal systems): impact difficult to quantify local effect, traffic signal coordination works only in one direction, potentially negative effects on cross-roads conflict with acceleration of bus/tram risk that gained road capacities will attract more traffic small net gain in pollution control truck ban: example HEAVEN project: up to 20% less NO2, -7% PM only local effect in single roads, merely shift to other roads, no net reduction speed limit 30km/h: example Schildhornstraße Berlin: 10 % less NO2, -6% PM if traffic light coordination with 30 km/h works well speed limit is enforced also less noise and traffic accidents 36 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  37. 37. urban air quality management resumeé a lot can be done on local level problems solved? Not quite..... Little to no downward trend of NO2 level in EU cities... µg/m³ longterm trend of nitrogen oxide levels in Berlin 100 NO- roadside 90 NO2 roadside NO2-residential areas 80 NO2-periphery 70 60 50 EU limit value for NO2 40 30 20 10 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 37 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  38. 38. urban air quality management resumeé NO2 direct emissions of cars & LGV increased up to Euro 4 due to lack of regulation HGV up to Euro V show no decrease of NOx emissions under real urban conditions only Euro 6/VI will (hopefully) bring about a tangible reduction of NOx & NO2 in cities but Euro 6/VI mandatory only 2014/15, won‘t help to attain NO2 AQ standards by 2010/2015 EU vehicle emission control policy has largely flopped ! full compliance with NO2 air quality standards even by 2015 will be terribly difficult air pollution problems, in particular from traffic, cannot be solved only by municipalities real NOx emissions of heavy duty vehicles in urban driving conditions: modelled NO2- levels at traffic site Stuttgart Neckartor traffic related local NO2-pollution "factor" calculated from HBEFA3.1 emission factors NO2+0.6*(NOx-NO2) for average urban driving cycle scenario 180% HGV calculation for a traffic related NO2-pollution (Euro1 = 100%) 160% urban bus traffic site in 140% Emissionstandard HGV Stuttgart NO2- 120% (Germany): limit value 100% reality LV excess even 80% in 2020 and even 60% if all vehicles were 40% Euro 6/VI 20% expectation 0% source: Udo Lambrecht Euro-0 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Euro-6 IFEU Institute 2010 38 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz
  39. 39. Thanks for listening! For more information on Berlin‘s LEZ see www.berlin.de/umweltzone (also in EN & FR) LEZ in Germany see http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/umweltzonen/index.htm LEZ-cities in Europe visit www.lowemissionzones.eu, the website of the European Network of LEZ-cities (LEEZEN) transport related measures in EU cities visit www.civitas.eu 39 Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz, Referat III D, M. Lutz

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