Source contributions to ambient levels of NO2 & PM in Spain (main focus BCN):
 Sources and strategies to take into account...
OUTLINE
   Air Quality: NO2 & PM in Spain
   The problem and the main sources of NO2
   The problem and the main sources o...
ENVIRONMENTAL STRANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY: EC


                                                             293 ° , 101,3 ...
NO2 LEVELS SPAIN 2006-2008
              120
                                                                             ...
NO2 MAY-JUNE 2008 (120 PASSIVE DOSIMETRES)




                                             Levels
NO2 MAY-JUNE 2008

  Fabra - Barceloneta




  G.
Lo
                                                                                                               nd
     ...
NO & NO2 TRENDS 1990-2009
                                          NOx       NO       NO2      %NO2/NOx        % diessel ...
Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics
                                                             ...
PM10 IN SPAIN 2006-2008
                80                                                                                ...
SPECIFIC INDUSTRIAL AREAS WITH PM EXCEEDANCES




             www.ecologistasextremadura.org
PM: A COMMON ORIGIN OF PROBLEMS FOR EU?




                                   Madrid / Barcelona
                        ...
No local C sources
     <3
     3-5
     5-7
     7-10
     10-15
     15-18




                                  10-12 t...
Claudia Mohr et al., 2010, EGU
Montserrat
        16%
        BBOA
         16%
68%      HOA
OOA
                         ...
Low re-suspension


      <3
      3-5
      5-7
      7-10
      10-15
      15-18                                       ...
unnacounted
     metals                  PM10/PM2.5        Kerbside station
     OC+EC


               µg/m3
     marine
...
Preliminary results
                                                   Barri Gòtic and traffic sites
                     ...
AIR QUALITY: THE PROBLEM OF DUST RE-SUSPENSION
       Amato et al., 2009. Atmos. Environ.

                          Max. ...
ROAD SWEEPING AND WASHING: 3 experiments
                                2 in Barcelona, 1 in Madrid
F. Amato PhD, 2010
  ...
ROAD SWEEPING AND WASHING: 3 experiments




                                                                             ...
BARCELONA, PM10, PM2.5 & PM1 TRENDS




                                                                                  ...
BARCELONA, PM10, source apportionmentvtrends
               PM 10 Aged marine aerosols
          35
                 2003 ...
CONCLUSIONS
•   Limit and target values of NO2, PM10 & PM2.5 are exceeded, specially in areas with high
    road traffic l...
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Xavier Querol - (Contribució de fonts a NO2 i PM a Espanya principalment Barcelona: fonts i estratègies a tenir en compte per millorar la qualitat de l’aire)

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Xavier Querol - (Contribució de fonts a NO2 i PM a Espanya principalment Barcelona: fonts i estratègies a tenir en compte per millorar la qualitat de l’aire)

  1. 1. Source contributions to ambient levels of NO2 & PM in Spain (main focus BCN): Sources and strategies to take into account for the improvement of air quality X. Querol, A. Alastuey, T. Moreno, M. Viana, J. Pey, M. Pandolfi, M.C. Minguillón, N. Pérez, F. Amato, M. Cusack, C. Reche, N. Moreno, J. Targa* Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC Spanish Research Council, Barcelona, Spain xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es * 4sfera Innova, Girona, Spain Barcelona, June 17 2010
  2. 2. OUTLINE Air Quality: NO2 & PM in Spain The problem and the main sources of NO2 The problem and the main sources of PM Main strategies to reduce ambient NO2 & PM Conclusions EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY (PM & NO2) IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF BARCELONA AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT GUIDELINES FOR SPAIN
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL STRANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY: EC 293 ° , 101,3 kPa K Directive 2008/50/CE except PM and metals, Evriron. Cond. Hourly 350 µg/m3 SO2 24 times per year Daily 125 µg/m 3 SO 3 times per year 2 Annual prot. ecos. 20 µg/m3 SO2 not exceeding annual and mean 1 Oct-31 Mar Hourly 200 µg/m 3 NO 18 times per year 2 Annual 40 µg/m3 NO2 not exceeding Annual prot. vegetation 30 µg/m3 NOx (reported as NO2) not exceeding Annual 30 (5) µg/m 3 Benzene not exceeding Mean 8-h max. in a day 10 mg/m3 CO not exceeding Annual 500 ng/m 3 Pb not exceeding Annual 40 µg/m3 PM10 not exceeding Daily 50 µg/m3 PM10 n<35 per year Anual (25 y 20 (18) µg/m3 PM ) not exceeding 2.5 2010-2020 (reducing 20% PM2.5 triennial for mean of urban background) 2004/107/CE Annual 6 ng/m3 As not exceeding Annual 20 ng/m3 Ni not exceeding Annual 5 ng/m3 Cd not exceeding Annual 1 ng/m3 α Benzo[α]pirene not exceeding Critical parameters (exceedances)
  4. 4. NO2 LEVELS SPAIN 2006-2008 120 120.0 Rurales y urbanas, 2006 Industriales, 2006 Estaciones de tráfico 51% sub-urbanas y urbanas 80 80.0 NO2 (µg/m ) NO2 (µg/m ) 3 3 15% Urbanas Urbanas de fondo 4% Sub-urbanas Rurales y regionales 8% Rurales y regionales Sub-urbanas próximas a ciudades 6% próximas a ciudades 40 40.0 Remotas 0 0.0 281 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2006), 23% superan el VLA 191 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2006), 4% superan el VLA 120 120 Rurales y urbanas, 2007 Industriales, 2007 51% 80 Estaciones de tráfico rurales, sub-urbanas y urbanas 80 NO2 (µg/m ) NO2 (µg/m ) 3 3 Sub-urbanas y urbanas de fondo Urbanas Sub-urbanas 3% 12% Rurales y regionales 10% próximas a ciudades 5% 40 40 Rurales y regionales próximas a ciudades Remotas 0 0 286 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2007), 22% superan el VLA 197 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2007), 4% superan el VLA 120 120 Rurales y urbanas, 2008 Industriales, 2008 41% Estaciones de tráfico rurales, sub-urbanas y urbanas 80 80 NO2 (µg/m ) NO2 (µg/m ) 3 3 Urbanas de fondo Urbanas Sub-urbanas 6% 8% Rurales y regionales 3% próximas a ciudades 3% Sub-urbanas 40 40 Rurales y regionales próximas a ciudades Remotas 0 0 299 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2008), 16% superan el VLA 197 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2008), 2% superan el VLA
  5. 5. NO2 MAY-JUNE 2008 (120 PASSIVE DOSIMETRES) Levels
  6. 6. NO2 MAY-JUNE 2008 Fabra - Barceloneta G.
  7. 7. Lo nd re s 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 R 20 om 0 1 a M 02 20 ad ri d 2379 Be 20 05 rlí n 20 M i lá 0 6 n M 2 1398 1226 u n 002 ic h 797 20 Vi en 05 Ba rc a el 20 o 04 Bu na da 20 pe 0 st 6 20 617 Pr 05 ag Va a 2 le 0 n c 04 Fr ia an 20 06 Es kfu to rt 20 359 co Ám lm 05 o st 20 er 06 da m Bo 20 lo 06 ni H a Turismos (x1000) el 20 si 05 nk i2 C 00 op Os 4 en lo ha 2 0 gu 05 Very high density of vehicles (#/km2) e 20 05 139 Ba rc el o na 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20 M ilá 06 Va n 2 le 0 nc 0 2 6.1 ia M 2 ad 00 WHY SO HIGH NO2? ri d 6 M 2.6 20 C un 05 op ic en h 2.3 ha 20 gu 05 e 20 Vi 05 en Lo a nd 200 re 4 s R 20 om 01 a Be 2 0 0 rlí 2 Bo n 2 lo 00 Es n 6 to ia 2 1.4 co 00 lm 5 Fr o an 200 kf 6 Turismos/Km 2 (x1000) ur t2 Pr 00 a Bu ga 5 da 20 pe 04 st H 20 el Ám si n 05 ki st er 20 0 da 4 m 20 O 06 sl o 20 05 http://w3.bcn.es/fitxers/mobilitat/dadesbasiques2006.222.pdf 1.0 0.4
  8. 8. NO & NO2 TRENDS 1990-2009 NOx NO NO2 %NO2/NOx % diessel fleet Prov. BCN 180 70 160 Martorell 60 140 50 120 100 40 3 µg/m % 80 30 60 Essen-Ost: Courtesy: Prof. Dr. P. Bruckmann 20 40 10 20 0 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  9. 9. Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics Courtesy: Prof. Dr. S. Hausberger Measurements: type approval vs. real world for PC 1.6 1.6 NO Diesel NEDC NO Diesel CADC (hot start) 1.4 NO2 1.4 NO2 1.2 1.2 (2015!!!!!!) NOx [g/km] NOx [g/km] 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 EU 0 EU 1 EU 2 EU 3 EU 4 EU 5 EU 0 EU 1 EU 2 EU 3 EU 4 EU 5 EU 6 NO2 fleet emission factors in urban traffic (share in mileage for AUT) 0 .2 5 2 .5 P a s s e n g e r c a r s g a s o lin e NO2 Passenger cars NO2 [g/km] P a s s e n g e r c a r s d ie s e l 0 .2 HD V 2 Total effect of NOx and NO2 fleet emission HDV NO2 [g/km] reduction may not be sufficient to reach 0 .1 5 1 .5 NO2 air quality targets near roads with high 0 .1 1 traffic volumes until 2015: 0 .0 5 0 .5 NON TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 0 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 ARE URGENTLY NEEDED I Y ear S. Hausberger: Brussels, 14. April 2010 9
  10. 10. PM10 IN SPAIN 2006-2008 80 80 Rurales y urbanas, 2006 Industriales, 2006 Urbanas Industriales Sub-urbanas industriales Sub-urbanas de tráfico 40% Urbanas de tráfico 42% 60 35% 60 Regionales-industriales Sub-urbanas de fondo 29% Urbanas de fondo y próximas a ciudades-industriales Rurales regionales 9% 27% PM 10 (µg/m ) PM 10 (µg/m ) 3 3 y próximas a ciudades 5% 6% 40 40 4% Remotas 20 20 0 0 268 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2006), 25% superan VLA 177 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2006), 24% superan el VLA 80 80 Rurales y urbanas, 2007 Industriales, 2007 Urbanas Industriales Sub-urbanas industriales Sub-urbanas de tráfico 26% 60 Sub-urbanas de fondo 60 29% Regionales-industriales 21% 43% 16% Urbanas de fondo y próximas a ciudades-industriales Rurales regionales Urbanas de tráfico 30% PM 10 (µg/m ) PM 10 (µg/m ) 3 y próximas a ciudades 3 2% 40 40 Remotas 20 20 0 0 294 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2007), 20% superan VLA 175 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2007), 19% superan el VLA 80 80 Rurales y urbanas, 2008 Industriales, 2008 Urbanas Industriales Sub-urbanas industriales 15% 60 Sub-urbanas de tráfico 60 Regionales-industriales 13% 10% Sub-urbanas de fondo Urbanas de fondo y próximas a ciudades-industriales Rurales regionales 10% Urbanas de tráfico 11% PM 10 (µg/m ) PM 10 (µg/m ) 3 y próximas a ciudades 21% 3 13% 40 40 Remotas 20 20 0 0 293 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2008), 11% superan VLA 188 estaciones de vigilancia y control calidad del aire (España 2008), 10% superan el VLA
  11. 11. SPECIFIC INDUSTRIAL AREAS WITH PM EXCEEDANCES www.ecologistasextremadura.org
  12. 12. PM: A COMMON ORIGIN OF PROBLEMS FOR EU? Madrid / Barcelona Amsterdam 60 45 Direct from local PM10 (µg/m3) PM10 (µg/m3) 50 traffic from this Direct from local 45 40 street (T) traffic from this 40 street (T) 35 Urban background 30 15 Urban urbano (FU) Fondo background Regional background Fondo regional (FR) (RB) Regional background (RB) 10 8 Continental background Fondo continental (FC) (CB) Continental background (CB)
  13. 13. No local C sources <3 3-5 5-7 7-10 10-15 15-18 10-12 traffic and some industrial 5-10 urban background 3- 4 in rural, regional back. Maximal dispersion, Trade winds OM+EC (µg/m3) PM10 Seasonal trend JFMAMJJASOND
  14. 14. Claudia Mohr et al., 2010, EGU Montserrat 16% BBOA 16% 68% HOA OOA 29% 7% OOA BBOA OOA levels close Origin??? 64% HOA Barcelona 14
  15. 15. Low re-suspension <3 3-5 5-7 7-10 10-15 15-18 Influence from Traffic >18 Influence from Traffic African contribution Mineral matter (µg/m3) PM10 Seasonal trend JFMAMJJASOND
  16. 16. unnacounted metals PM10/PM2.5 Kerbside station OC+EC µg/m3 marine mineral Urban background NH4+ NO3- Helsinki (1) Helsinki (1) Rural background 14/8 µg/m3 25/12 µg/m3 nmSO42- Sweden (3) The Netherlands 10 µg/m3 UK (7) (6) 35/24 Berlin (5) UK (7) 25/20 30/20 40/26 µg/m3 25/16 22/14 Berlin (5) 29/22 µg/m3 Krakow (2) 100 µg/m3 Bemantes Spain (12) Gent (8) 24/19 Urban dust a major problem 19/14 µg/m3 Llodio in S. Europe 33/24 µg/m3 Basel (9) 28/- µg/m3 Wien (4) Illmitz (4) 53/38 µg/m3 24/20 µg/m3 1. Pakkanen et al., (2001) Las Palmas Milano (10) 2. Marelli et al., 2006; Putaud et al., 2006 48/18 µg/m3 --/47 3. EC, 2004 4. EC, 2004 5. Abraham et al., 2001 6. Visser et al., 2001 Barcelona 48/- 7. EC, 2004 Alcobendas 28/- 47/28 µg/m3 8. Viana et al., 2006a 29/17 µg/m3 Roma (11) 37/- 9. Röösli et al., 2001 10. Rodriguez et al., 2007 Huelva 11. Perrino and Allegrini, 2006 36/19 µg/m3 12. Querol et al., 2004
  17. 17. Preliminary results Barri Gòtic and traffic sites 8 and 4 µg/m3 NH3 NaNO3 Ca(NO3)2 NH4NO3 Major specie (excluding Canary Isl.) EMEP Thermal instability of NH4NO3 NO3- (µg/m3) PM10 along the year <1 1-2 Seasonal trend 2-3 3-4 4-5 JFMAMJJASOND >5
  18. 18. AIR QUALITY: THE PROBLEM OF DUST RE-SUSPENSION Amato et al., 2009. Atmos. Environ. Max. PM10 Traffic: 43% Shipping: 3% Industrial, 1.0, Intrusión 2% Fuel oil, 1.5, 3% Sahariana, 1.5, Marino, 3.5, 8% 3% Motores, 9.0, Fuente: Tesis doctoral 20% F. Amato CSIC-IJA Sulfatos, 7.9, Road dust, 6.7, 18% 15% Dem.-res. (reg.): 20% Mineral, 8.8, 20% Nitratos , 4.9, 11% Max. PM2.5 Traffic: 46% Max. PM1 Traffic: 50% Shipping: 4% Industrial, 0.9, Intrusión Shipping: 5% Industrial, 0.5, 3% 3% Sahariana, 0.9, Intrusión Fuel oil, 0.9, 5% Fuel oil, 1.3, 4% Sahariana, 0.3, 3% Marino, 0.9, 3% Marino, 0.1, 1% 2% Motores, 8.0, 27% Motores, 6.3, 35% Sulfatos, 7.8, Sulfatos, 6.1, 27% Road dust, 2.2, 34% 8% Road dust, 0.3, Mineral, 2.9, 10% Nitratos , 4.3, Mineral, 0.2, 1% Nitratos , 3.0, 2% 15% 17% Demolition-resuspension (reg.): 10% Demolition-resuspension (reg.): 1%
  19. 19. ROAD SWEEPING AND WASHING: 3 experiments 2 in Barcelona, 1 in Madrid F. Amato PhD, 2010 Me rid ia n aA v. Glories 0 15 30 60 45 345 v. 50 330 60 40 315 75 A 30 300 20 90 10 ia 285 0 105 270 120 255 240 150 135 nc le 225 165 210 195 180 Va . l Av a on ag Di
  20. 20. ROAD SWEEPING AND WASHING: 3 experiments Rainfall ~ 1 L/m2 Duration of cleaning effect F. Amato PhD, 2010 Road cleaning Dust load mg/m2 Deposition > Emission Rainfall > 3 L/m2 Deposition = Emission Abating deposition dDL = Dep − f ( DL ) dt Time of recovery Time Time of recovery Deposition abated EMISSION RATE DUST LOAD mixed fleet <10µm (mg veh-1 km-1) (mg m-2) Abatement of other emissions (e.g. exhaust, Barcelona 82** 8.9* demolition/construction) and washing streets in large areas will abate deposition Zürich 27*** 0.7 * Amato et al., (2009) ATM ENV ** Amato et al., (2010) STOTEN ***Bukowiecki et al. (2010) ATM ENV
  21. 21. BARCELONA, PM10, PM2.5 & PM1 TRENDS Mean traffic flow in the acces roads to Barcelona 1.240.000 60 1.220.000 Total without NAF 50 1.200.000 (mean for working days) 1.180.000 40 PM10 (µg/m ) 3 1.160.000 30 1.140.000 1.000.000 1.120.000 20 1.100.000 -8% 2007-2009 10 980.000 1.080.000 Ajuntament de Barcelona 1.060.000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 30 1999 2000 960.000 2003 2001 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 380000 360000 N vehicles/year 25 940.000 340000 AENA Traffic: Barcelona airport 20 320000 PM2.5 (µg/m3) 920.000 300000 15 280000 900.000 10 260000 880.000 240000 -21% 2007-2009 5 Ajuntament de Barcelona 220000 0 860.000 200000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1999 2000 Vehicle2002 2003 2001 fleet/25000 2004 2005 Diesel % 2006 2007 2008 2009 55 25 1 14.000 % Diesel and N of vehicle fleet* 840.000 13.500 45 -17% 2006 2007 2007-2009 1 20 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2008 2009 Tarffic: Barcelona harbours 13.000 1 35 Port de Barcelona PM1 (µg/m3) 12.500 15 1 25 12.000 10 11.500 0 15 11.000 5 0 5 10.500 10.000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 -5 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  22. 22. BARCELONA, PM10, source apportionmentvtrends PM 10 Aged marine aerosols 35 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 30 25 µg m-3 20 15 10 5 0.70 0 PM10Primary road traffic 0.60 35 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 30 0.50 Data 25 Sen's estimate µg m-3 20 0.40 15 99 % conf. min 10 0.30 99 % conf. max Cd 5 0 95 % conf. min 0.20 95 % conf. max 90 PM10 Mineral matter 0.10 Residual 80 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 70 0.00 60 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 µg m-3 50 40 -0.10 30 20 -0.20 10 0 Year PM10 Ammonium nitrate 60 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 50 40 µg m-3 30 20 10.00 10 0 PM 10 Fuel oil + ammonium sulphate 8.00 35 30 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Data 25 6.00 Sen's estimate µg m-3 20 99 % conf. min 15 99 % conf. max Sb 10 4.00 5 95 % conf. min 0 95 % conf. max 25 PM 10 Industrial emissions 2.00 Residual 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 20 15 0.00 µg m-3 10 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 5 -2.00 0 Year
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS • Limit and target values of NO2, PM10 & PM2.5 are exceeded, specially in areas with high road traffic loads. A few specific industrial hotspots register also exceedances. • The climate and urban architecture of Spanish cities favor accumulation of pollutants and consequently special measures are needed. NO2 • Drastic measures are needed to solve the problem. High traffic density, very high dieselization (a high proportion are new!!), high NO2 emissions of new diesel cars are causing this problem. • Non technological road traffic measures (reducing the number of cars in the city centre) are required for NO2. PM10 • Mineral matter (road and construction dust), carbonaceous PM (exhaust) and nitrate (exhaust reacting with ammonia) are the target components to abate. • Drastic and non technological traffic measures are also required for PM. • In addition to Euro standards and SCRT in buses (TMB), control of construction emissions (works and transport of powdered material), urban ammonia, and road dust cleaning over large areas, are the most needed PM abatement measures. • There are still uncertainties on the origin of secondary organic aerosol (a large fraction of the carbonaceous material). Thank you very much for your attention ! xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es

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