Design as Worldmaking by Bas Leurs

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Workshop by Bas Leurs for MediaLAB Amsterdam.

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Design as Worldmaking by Bas Leurs

  1. 1. Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences Creating 010Design ResearchDesign as Worldmaking Bas Leurs (b.l.f.leurs@hr.nl) Amsterdam, September 11, 2012
  2. 2. Design as a black boxINPUT OUTPU T
  3. 3. what is design?
  4. 4. Jot down three keywordswhich should be found in the definition of design
  5. 5. Design is about making decisions, often in the face of uncertainty Do you like this one? Joseph Zinter (2012)
  6. 6. a bi l i t y? "Design is the ability to imagine that- which-does-not-yet-exist, to make it appear in concrete form as a new,purposeful addition to the real world." Do you like this one? Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman (2002)
  7. 7. Designers typically produce novelunexpected solutions, tolerate uncertainty, work with incomplete information, apply imagination and constructive forethought to practical problems and use drawings ans other modelling media as means of problem solving Do you like this one? Bryan Lawson & Kees Dorst (2009)
  8. 8. Design is to initiatechange in man-madethings John Chris Jones Design Methods Seeds of human future 1970
  9. 9. satisfyinnovative aims people purposeful improve plans human intentions users imaginative uncertainty present existing situation future problem prefered situation solution new creating problem solving Changing an existing situation into a preferred situation, requires imagination changing to formulate a plan that deals with uncertainty that the future holds. decision making
  10. 10. Design as...a creative process...an artefact...a way of thinking...a way of doing...a way of living...a cultural phenomenaa fundamental human activity...the creation of value...problem solving...[...]a learning process...
  11. 11. Science vs Design“The natural sciences “Design is concerned with are concerned with how things ought to be, how things are.” with devising artifices to attain goals.” Herbert Simon (1969)
  12. 12. "Everyone designs who devises courses of actionaimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones." Herbert Simon (1969)
  13. 13. initial process future state statecurrent situation transformation function desired situation
  14. 14. initial process future state statecurrent situation transformation function desired situation feeling of design feeling insecurity process more safe designing an intervention that has an effect
  15. 15. binson@dcontinuum.com The analysis-synthesis bridge modele the design process s: analysis and syn- Researching Prototypingnspiration. But those Interpret Abstractelement—the con- e active move from nsition or transfor- suggest Model of Model of what f designing. How do what “is” “could be” is to synthesis? Fromurrent situation to manifes to distilledarch to concept? From Describe Concrete t ased response? From he gap? Whates one way of think- What “is” “could be” ysis to synthesis—the els to frame research Existing – Implicit Preferred – Explicit ming possible futures. (Current) (Future) “then the other thing Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or partgners and research- of this work for personal or classroom use is granted Analysis-synthesis bridge model without the fee, provided of analysis in order that copies are not made or distributed for profit orme to the next desired Hugh Dubberly, Shelley Evenson & Rick Robinson (2008) commercial advantage, and that copies bear this vehicle for that move. notice and the full citation
  16. 16. what is research?
  17. 17. Research is an organizedand systematic way of finding answers to questions.
  18. 18. ? ? ?? Questions ntal king is a fundame Answer(s) “Q uestion as design ec hanism in cognitive m 003) thinkin g” (Eris, 2
  19. 19. The Big61 Defining the question Define the information problem / Identify information needed Whats the main question? What are the subquestions?2 Information Seeking Strategies Determine the range of possible sources Select the best sources3 Locate and access the information Locate sources (intellectually and physically) Find information within sources (references)4 Getting the information Extract the information from a source (books, websites, users, experts etc): read, listen, observe5 Putting it all together Organize the information which you obtained from multiple sources Present the information6 Evaluation Judge the answers Did the information lead to an answer of the question? If not, sta r t with ste refine or p 1 again redefine y and our questi on
  20. 20. feedback of future users. However, designers do not (always)process has been growing as designers move closer to the future usersFigure 2: The front end of the design follow a step by step approach during their researchof what they design.2. A quick glance at history Diagram by Elizabeth Sanders & Pieter Jan Stappers (2008)
  21. 21. what are welooking for when we research for design?
  22. 22. About Context Mapping Story A Story BRobert pushed the print button 23 times. It Robert pushed the print button repeatedly.was the third time that week that Robert With every push he used more force, gettingwas using the printer. Till so far he has more and more irritated. Robert considers theprinted 23.000 pages this year. Today is printer as an unreliable piece of equipment: itthe first time that Robert will meet the new always failed to deliver when the tensions areCEO. Robert currently earns $ 23,000. high. Especially today, when he is going toWhen he is a senior manager he will make meet with the new CEO. Robert has heard$ 34,000. He currently rents a house for some stories about this new CEO, that he$1,000 a month. Robert has one wife and doesn’t want to waste his time. And Roberttwo children. doesn’t want to be the reason that the CEO is wasting his time, because Robert is trying to move up towards a senior management position. Once he has obtained this position, Robert hopes that he can finally rent a bigger house for his family. If you have to make a design for Robert, which story would you choose?
  23. 23. About Context Mapping s This is whaThis is what busines t designers people like like quantitative vs qualitative Quantitative research is about Qualitative research deals with numbers. It is mostly carried out words and images. These words through questionaires. and images are often ambiguous. Response rate is often low, and the results are not always useful to start a design process with.
  24. 24. What do you see? What is going on here?
  25. 25. About Context Mappingdesign decisions should be grounded in facts, not in assumptions
  26. 26. About Context Mapping f this Parts o are image ally i on intent d or blurre d e obscur There is nothing wrong with assumptions, you have to validate them though. It is recommended to start with a assumption map
  27. 27. What do you see? What is going on here?
  28. 28. About Context Mapping Research for design mustrely on objective rather than subjective observations
  29. 29. About Context Mapping Triangulation Is it still subjective if three (or more) designers share the same conclusion?
  30. 30. when we are researching for design, we are looking for...information, insights and inspiration?
  31. 31. andThree perspectives on We design the interaction between people and products, people and brands and peopleHuman Centered Design people. Thereby we design behaviour.Bas Leurs (b.l.f.leurs@hr.nl) Behaviour is the effect of our intervention humans INTERACTION TE GY CH LO NO NO LO TECH GY N human IN C TIO TE RA RA CT TE IO IN N TECH NOLOGY products / artefacts / environments brands / organisations / companies
  32. 32. What kind of knowledge do we need? Or what kind of (research) questions should we ask?
  33. 33. why?
  34. 34. why do designers want to understand ‘the why’?
  35. 35. Parts of this image a re intentio nally blurred or obsc interviews: help to understand the context ured 38
  36. 36. to ob servations: help text und erstand the con or to find peculiar habits.Parts of this image a re intentio nally blurred or obsc ured
  37. 37. probes: to sensitize thpar ticipant e s and to elstories and icit experience s 40
  38. 38. generative session: to stories and elicit experience s 41
  39. 39. why, why, why...
  40. 40. Theory of Planned Behavior Icek Ajzen (2006)
  41. 41. Design for Emotion emotion appraisalconcern stimuli Pieter Desmet (2002)
  42. 42. About Context Mapping What are we looking for when we research for design? Stories are carriers of experiences and values. Stories help designers understand what motivates peoples and how the context influences the interaction.
  43. 43. what is design research?
  44. 44. Design research is the act of investigating,through various means, a products orservices potential or existing users and thecontext of use. Dan Saffer (2007)
  45. 45. Designers use these research methods to obtain information aboutthe subjects and their environment that the designers mightotherwise not have known and are thus better able to design forthose subjects and environments. It behooves designers tounderstand the emotional, cultural, and aesthetic context that theproduct or service will exist in. Only through research candesigners find out. Dan Saffer (2007)
  46. 46. let’s have a break?
  47. 47. the problem with design what makes it so complicated?
  48. 48. Design is a futureoriented activityJohn Christopher Jones (1970)“The fundamental problem isthat designers are obliged touse current information topredict a future state that willnot come about unless theirpredictions are correct.” 51
  49. 49. initial state transformation function future stateHowever, because of the very nature of design problems,there is very often very little information about the problem,even less information about the goal (solution) and absolutelyno information about the transformation function. John Restrepo, Henri Christiaans (2003)
  50. 50. From prediction to explorationDesign is involved in proposing the new, which, bydefinition, is not predictable. Early Futures Studies werestill aimed at prediction, today there are projective andevolutionary approaches, which explore multiple futuresand take the methods rather as learning devices than asforecasting tools. Wolfgang Jonas (2006)
  51. 51. Learning is the acquisition ofknowledge (or skills) throughexperience, practice or study.Learning is making sense orabstracting meaning.Learning is interpreting andunderstanding reality in adifferent way.
  52. 52. rn lea i ng taking an action that transforms the internal (knowledge, beliefs) designing doing an intervention that transforms theexternal (world, context)
  53. 53. From prediction to explorationDesign is involved in proposing the new, which, bydefinition, is not predictable. Early Futures Studies werestill aimed at prediction, today there are projective andevolutionary approaches, which explore multiple futuresand take the methods rather as learning devices than asforecasting tools. Wolfgang Jonas (2006)
  54. 54. Nelson Goodman (1978)
  55. 55. World D ymaxion Fuller’sBuc kminster
  56. 56. Design as a process of Worldmaking Principles Theories Facts KnowledgePhenomena Assumptions Stories Interventions Values Models Learning devices Representations Inspiration Information Experiences Questioning Prototypes Reading Trends Posters Activities Observations and t heir Using Sketches Interactions s Insights People value Products Listening Stories Activities Observing Movies ArtefactsInteractions Watching Diagrams Business Products Analysing Worldmaking is a process of forming Personas Technology an idiosyncratic mental model in Artefacts Making order to understanding the factors Fact sheets Etc... Context Evaluating that drive the transformation from the Capture cards The intervention current state to the desired state. ultimately leads to a Business Simulating Presentations change in the worldTechnology Discussing Reports Stories Critiquing Etc. Effects Etc... These representations are used to Etc... Design methods and techniques share the mental model with stake- holders or to supprt the inner are are learning devices that dialogue of the designer. support these activities.
  57. 57. binson@dcontinuum.come the design process s: analysis and syn- Researching Prototypingnspiration. But those Interpret Abstractelement—the con- e active move from nsition or transfor- suggest Model of Model of what f designing. How do what “is” “could be” is to synthesis? Fromurrent situation to manifes to distilledarch to concept? From Describe Concrete t ased response? From he gap? Whates one way of think- What “is” “could be” ysis to synthesis—the els to frame research Existing – Implicit Preferred – Explicit ming possible futures. (Current) (Future) “then the other thing Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or partgners and research- of this work for personal or classroom use is granted Analysis-synthesis bridge model without the fee, provided of analysis in order that copies are not made or distributed for profit orme to the next desired Hugh Dubberly, Shelley Evenson & Rick Robinson (2008) commercial advantage, and that copies bear this vehicle for that move. notice and the full citation
  58. 58. Quick and dirty, map out all that you know... Models Theories Inspiration Experiences Assumptions Facts Stories Stories InformationPrinciples Observations Trends
  59. 59. design methods devices of learning
  60. 60. Figure 1. The current landscape of human-centered design research as practiced in the design anddevelopment of products and services.Within this landscape, in the area of participatory&design, the notions of co-creation and co-design Elizabeth Sanders Pieter Jan Stappers (2008)have been growing. The terms co-design and co-creation are today often confused and/or treated
  61. 61. Human Centered ICT Toolkitproject.cmd.hro.nl/cmi/hci/toolkit/index.php
  62. 62. www.servicedesigntools.orgwww.ideo.com/work/method-cards/
  63. 63. About Context Mapping Triangulation Using several methods provide you with richer insights Cultural Probes Laddering Observations Interviews
  64. 64. Learning by making C# Java Working Beta version Very detailed visuals. Fully functional product. High Fidility a few days to a few weeks (or even months) Flash Good skills of programming required Flash Catalyst VVVV 1 hour to a few days Axure Max / MSP Arduino Dreamweaver Stop motion Wireframes Wizard of OzRole playing Powerpoint Enactment Sketches Crude sketches Few visual details, mimicked behaviour Low Fidility a few seconds to 10 minutes Not many skills required (sketching)
  65. 65. design methodsmapping and sharing your insights
  66. 66. Parts of this image areintentionally blurred or obscured Capture as much data as possible (photographs, video, audio recordings)
  67. 67. Capture Cards is W ai$nginline e inline wasteof$mwhensheis standing at edth“Ihate Lucyexplain sto hatshehate don eshoppingt e heckout.Sh finishmy w aitinlinetoc scannerstha t dwaitto no$ced thebarcode month,that installedlastan er$meand were wouldpro bablysaveh ’tthoughtof frustra$ on.Shehasn oppings” usingityet. sh Wellorganised freshdepartmen Thevegetablesa t representedina verywellorganis edfashion.Alot ofaFen$onhas beenpaidtohow Bas$&$Maria day,(december(2,(2012( thevegetablesis presented,to Lucy urs makeitlookatits Walmart,(Th best. Picture/QuoteCapture cards help you recordyour data from field research(observations, quotes) quick and Bas$&$Mariadirty... but very effectively Walmart,(Thursd ay,(december(2,(2 012( Highlight salien t details
  68. 68. Capture CardsParts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  69. 69. Parts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  70. 70. About Context Mapping Use Powe rpoint (or Keynote) to quickly capture your findings You can easily drag and drop different types of media (text, images, movies) on to a slide
  71. 71. W ould you like to dio?work at this stu
  72. 72. As designers, we know that we mustaugment our short-term memorieswith external aids. Historically, themost important of these is the 1995drawing on a drawing board. Today,a computer screen often replaces thedrawing board. Herbert Simon (1995)
  73. 73. The problem with storing knowledge on a computer Computers and servers are excellent devices to store knowledge on. However, retreiving theknowledge might take some (or too much) effort.For example... in order to share your insights with your teammates during a meeting you have toswitch on your computer, open the document or a webbrowser, navigate to the specific page.
  74. 74. Parts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  75. 75. Make posters to conveyyour knowledge. 78
  76. 76. 80
  77. 77. Parts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  78. 78. Make posters that represent your results and conclusionsParts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  79. 79. 3-30-300 seconds ma Principle in m headlines ess age salient facts, figures su mm and conclusions ar y det data / evidence ail s
  80. 80. Poster template 3 se c o n ds S u bje ct (m a in m e s s a g e) 300 c o n ds s econ 300 se ds nd s 3/3 0 se c o Resu lts of you r rese arch, deta ils, Resu lts of you r rese arch, deta ils, A visu al th at expl ai ns or argu ments that supp ort you ror argu ments that yo ur re se arch fi ndin gs or conc ept supp ort you r conc ept co nc ept (n ot m an dato ry, bu t hi gh ly re co m m en de d) 300 se c o n ds ds 300 se c o n Resu lts of you r Resu lts of you r 30 se c o n ds rese arch, deta ils, or argu ments that Su m m ar y of yo ur re se arch/c on cept rese arch, deta ils,or argu ments that supp ort you r supp ort you r (th e expres s-elevato r-pi tc h) conc ept conc ept your name and affiliations note: this template is just an example layout, feel free to make changes.
  81. 81. Use your research findings to bring your personas to life.Parts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  82. 82. ScenarioParts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  83. 83. Movies / Diagrams http://braindoodles.net Visual vocabu lary object/p roduct interacti on steps / process play-man star-ma n card-ma n cell phone quadrants or venn diagrams are goodarrows laptop / computer for showing relations between entities basic shapes lines devices document / documents emotions internet / cloud home stretched limo money office
  84. 84. Movies http://vimeo.com/36001036
  85. 85. MoviesParts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  86. 86. d or ob scured ge are int entionally blurreParts of this ima
  87. 87. to conclude...
  88. 88. About Context Mapping http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.html
  89. 89. About Context Mapping By externalizing your knowledge it becomes explicit s and ur insight Share yo cal our physi ideas in y pace. a l) studio s Ikujiru Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi (1995) (not vir tu
  90. 90. Listen to people their stories,capture and share these stories.Stories are carriers of experiences and values. Parts of this image a re inten tionally blurred or o bscured
  91. 91. Listen to people their stories, Worldmaking is an collaborative activity capture and share these stories. Stories are carriers of experiences and values. Models Theories Inspiration Experiences Assumptions Facts Stories Stories InformationPrinciples Observations Trends
  92. 92. hoe doe je een interview:vragen stellenpaper over interviews You always design with the knowledge that is available Design projects are always restricted by time. Therefore you will never find all the answers that you need. However you don’t always need to finish the whole jigsaw puzzle to form a mental picture about its theme or final state.
  93. 93. About Context Mapping Question everything
  94. 94. thank you...

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