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  1. 1. CINEMATOGRAPHY • If mise en scene refers to what is placed in front of the camera, then cinematography is concerned with recording the elements within the shots. While photography is the recording of a static image, cinematography is the recording of a moving image. The key areas are: 1. Framing 2. Shot size 3. Length of take 4. Camera movement 5. Camera angles 6. Depth of field 7. Colours
  2. 2. FRAMING • A key ingredient of cinematography is framing. Framing determines what is included and what is excluded. • There is a close link between framing, composition and mise en scene. Mise en scene refers to what is being filmed and composition how it is arranged and therefore in effect, both define what the framing will be.
  3. 3. LENGTH OF TAKE • The average duration of a shot is 6 seconds, but introductory shots are often at least twice this length. This allows the viewers time to become acquainted with the actors.
  4. 4. CAMERA MOVEMENT • There are 4 main types of camera movement. 1. Pan shot: the camera rotates horizontally around a fixed position and is often used to follow movement. 2. Tilt shot: the camera moves vertically around a fixed position, typically used to indicated height. 3. Tracking shot: this involves a horizontal movement of the camera in which it changes location and is usually fitted to a device called a dolly that runs on rails. 4. Crane shot: this shot enable the camera to be raised and lowered and moved horizontally It is also possible to zoom in and out using a hand held camera.
  5. 5. CAMERA ANGLES • Camera angles provide another means of producing different meanings. • Eye level: these angles are the most common that allow us to relate to the characters. • Low camera angle: this angle is used to connotate power of a character. • High camera angle: this can be used for providing a general overview of a situation or signify the weakness of a character.
  6. 6. DEPTH OF FIELD • A camera can focus on just a small part of what is in the frame or on the whole scene. Focusing on only part of a frame is known as shallow focus and is often used as a device for encouraging the audience to concentrate on a particular part of the scene. • Seeing everything in focus, from foreground to background is known as deep focus.
  7. 7. COLOUR • Colours can be used to create meaning in films. • Vibrant colours can be used to recreate excitement e.g. Disney films • Simple colours can be used to recreate a realistic image – British realism • Black and white may be used because it is cheaper or for artistic reasons – Raging Bull, Schindler’s List, Seven.