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Sejarah Tingkatan 4: Bab2

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Sejarah Tingkatan 4: Bab2

  1. 1. ANJURAN JPN SELANGOR TEMPAT HOTEL ROSA PASSADENA, CAMERON HIGHLANDS
  2. 2. KUMPULAN 3 KASMAIDI BIN AB.KADER (SMK KG.SOEHARTO) HANITA SAMADI (SMK SEKSYEN 24 SHAH ALAM) ROZEE BT HJ.RUSLANI (SMK BDR TUN HUSSEIN ONN 2) NOR AZLINA ZAINAL ABIDIN (SMK TAMAN SEA) NORPISHAH BT MD.REJAB (SMK DENGKIL)
  3. 3. OBJEKTIF PEMBELAJARAN 1. Menyatakan latar belakang tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China. 2. Mengenal pasti aspek-aspek yang membawa kepada peningkatan tamadun. 3. Menghuraikan sumbangan tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China. 4. Merasionalkan kepentingan agama dan ajaran utama dunia dalam perkembangan tamadun manusia.
  4. 4. YUNANI ROM CHINA INDIA
  5. 5. KEDUDUKAN TAMADUN DALAM PETA DUNIA
  6. 6. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN PERUNDANGAN PERLUASAN KUASA PENINGKATAN EKONOMI PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI SENI BINA BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL T U K E S A H DAPAT FULUS TAPI BUAT SAMPAH SARAP
  7. 7. MONARKI OLIGARKI ARISTOKRASI TIRANI/DIKTATOR DEMOKRASI
  8. 8. PERBEZAAN DEMOKRASI
  9. 9. UNDANG-UNDANG DIGUBAL OLEH DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN NEGARA HARUS DIPERINTAH OLEH AHLI FALSAFAH KERANA HANYA MEREKA FAHAMI UNDANG-UNDANG (PLATO)
  10. 10. PENYATUAN MACEDONIA DENGAN YUNANI OLEH PHILIP II
  11. 11. Telah menyebarkan kebudayaan Hellenistik ke negara-negara Jajahan takluknya.
  12. 12. Hellenistic civilization thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of Asia, and a departure from the traditional Greek attitude to "barbarian" cultures. The extent to which a genuinely hybrid Greco- Asian cultures emerged is contentious; consensus tends to point towards pragmatic cultural adaptation by the elites of society; for the mass of the population, life would probably have continued much as before[1] .
  13. 13. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus, Rhodes and Seleucia were also important, and increasing urbanization of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time.
  14. 14. Hellenistic culture. The name derives from the fact that Greek culture spread throughout the area in the last 3 centuries before the common era. In the Hellenistic period, It was in the cities that the descendants of the Greco-Macedonian conquerors became a professional class of rulers and soldiers and merchants, which provided a cultural and economic bond throughout the area, even though political unity did not survive the death of Alexander. As the administrators and the merchants of their world, in spite of being in the minority, they had an influence out of proportion to their numbers. The city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander, located on the Mediterranean at the mouth of the Nile, became the most prominent center of commerce and learning. The library in Alexandria became the depository for recording many of the literary and scientific achievements of the time. Although women continued to have a subordinate status, some lucky few of the wealthy and ruling classes, would have the opportunity to become involved in commerce or in intellectual activities. For the most part, however, women had no part in public life. Slavery, which had been a commonly accepted practice throughout the history of ancient civilization, remained a prominent part of Hellenistic culture.
  15. 15. Serba sedikit tentang riwayat hidup dan perjuangan Alexander The Great meluaskan empayar…
  16. 16. The Iliad (Greek: λιάς [iliás] (Ancient),Ἰ Ιλιάδα [ili'aða] (Modern)) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer. However, the claim of a single author is disputed, as the poems show evidence of a long oral tradition and hence, possible multiple authors. Many scholars believe the poem to be the oldest extant work of literature in the ancient Greek language. The poem concerns events during the tenth and final year of the Trojan War, the siege of the city of Ilion or Troy, by the Greeks. The plot centers on the Greek warrior Achilles and his anger toward the king of Mycenae, Agamemnon, which proves disastrous for the Greeks.[2] It provides many of the events that the later poems of the Epic Cycle build on, including the death of the Trojan captain Hector. Written in dactylic hexameter, the Iliad comprises 15,693 lines of verse. Later ancient Greeks divided it into twenty-four books or scrolls, a convention that has lasted to the present day with little change. The word Iliad means "pertaining to Ilios" (in Latin, Ilium), the city proper, as opposed to Troy (in Greek, Τροία, Troía; in Latin, Troia, Troiae, f., in Turkish Truva), the state centered around Ilium.
  17. 17. Boys were taught at home by their mothers until they were 6 or 7 years old. In Athens the education was left up to the father. Students were taught by private schoolmasters. The boys from wealthy families were taken to school by a trusted slave. The students learned to write on wax-covered tablets with a stylus. Books were very expensive, so they were rare. The students in Athens learned to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. They also learned about fractions. Students learned the words of Homer and how to play the lyre. Boys were trained in sports. Wealthy children learned to ride horseback. Other sports included wrestling, using a bow and a sling, and swimming. At age 14 boys attended a higher school for four more years. At age 18 boys went to military school. They graduated at age 20. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  18. 18. Spartan Schools When babies were born in Sparta, Spartan soldiers would come by the house to examine them. If the baby did not look healthy, it was taken away and left to die or trained as a slave. If the baby was healthy, it was assigned membership in a brotherhood or sisterhood. The boys in Sparta were sent to military camps of their brotherhood when they turned 7. They learned how to read and write until they were about 14. The Spartan government wanted to make the boys tough. To do this they were given little clothing and no shoes. They slept on hard beds made of reeds and were not given any covers. They were not given enough food. They were trained in survival skills and how to be a good soldier. Reading and writing were taught as secondary skills. Between ages 18 to 20 each boy had to pass a fitness test. If he did not pass the test, he became a perioidos. This was a person of middle class who had no political rights and was not even considered a citizen. If the boy passed he served in the military and continued to train as a soldier. Military service lasted until the boy reached age 60. The girls were trained in the school of their sisterhood. They were taught physical
  19. 19. WARGA SPARTA
  20. 20. ACROPOLIS
  21. 21. PARTHENON – RUMAH IBADAT (TUHAN ATHENA)
  22. 22. The most famous games held at Olympia, South- West of Greece, which took place every four years. The ancient Olympics seem to have begun in the early 700 BC, in honour of Zeus. No women were allowed to watch the games and only Greek nationals could participate. One of the ancient wonders was a statue of Zeus at Olympia, made of gold and ivory by a Greek sculptor Pheidias. This was placed inside a Temple, although it was a towering 42 feet high. The games at Olympia were greatly expanded from a one-day festival of athletics and wrestling to, in 472 BC, five days with many events. The order of the events is not precisely known, but the first day of the festival was devoted to sacrifices. On the Middle Day of the festival 100 oxen were sacrificed in honor of a God. Athletes also often prayed and made small sacrifices themselves.. On the second day, the foot-race, the main event of the games, took place in the stadium, an oblong area enclosed by sloping banks of earth. At Olympia there were 4 different types of races; The first was stadion, the oldest event of the Games, where runners sprinted for 1 stade, the length of the stadium(192m). The other races were a 2-stade race (384 m.), and a long-distance run which ranged from 7 to 24 stades (1,344 m. to 4,608 m.).The fourth type of race involved runners wearing full amor, which was 2-4 stade race (384 m. to 768 m.), used to build up speed and stamina for military purposes. On other days, wrestling, boxing, and the pancratium, a combination of the two, were held. In wrestling, the aim was to throw the opponent to the ground three times, on either his hip, back or shoulder. In ancient Greek wrestling biting and genital holds were illegal.
  23. 23. Boxing became more and more brutal; at first the pugilists wound straps of soft leather over their fingers as a means of deadening the blows, but in later times hard leather, sometimes weighted with metal, was used. In the pancratium, the most rigorous of the sports, the contest continued until one or the other of the participants acknowledged defeat. Horse-racing, in which each entrant owned his horse, was confined to the wealthy but was nevertheless a popular attraction. The course was 6 laps of the track, with separate races for whereupon the rider would have no stirrups. It was only wealthy people that could pay for such training, equipment, and feed of both the rider and the horses. So whichever horse won it was not the rider who was awarded the Olive wreath but the owner. There were also Chariot races, that consisted of both 2-horse and 4-horse chariot races, with separate races for chariots drawn by foals. There was also a race was between carts drawn by a team of 2 mules, which was 12 laps of the stadium track.
  24. 24. OLIMPIK – upacara sembah Tuhan Zeus di Athena
  25. 25. Peserta Olimpik….. Hanya lelaki. Mengapa?
  26. 26. TAMADUN ROM
  27. 27. Jelaskan ciri-ciri demokrasi di Athens. (8 markah)
  28. 28. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN PERUNDANGAN PERLUASAN KUASA PENINGKATAN EKONOMI PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI SENI BINA BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL T U K E S A H DAPAT FULUS TAPI BUAT SAMPAH SARAP
  29. 29. PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN ROM
  30. 30. PERUBAHAN PENTADBIRAN PEMERINTAHAN ROM DIAMBILALIH OLEH JULIUS CAESAR
  31. 31. UNDANG2 PAPAN DUA BELAS/TWELVE TABLES
  32. 32. EMPAYAR ROM di bawah pentadbiran AUGUSTUS CAESAR
  33. 33. EKONOMI ROM TIADA REKOD
  34. 34. FALSAFAH ROM
  35. 35. SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI ILMU MATEMATIK DIKAITKAN DGN MUZIK, GEOMETRI & ASTRONOMI TOKOH: BOETHIUS PENYERAPAN UNSUR YUNANI
  36. 36. SENI BINA
  37. 37. PERTARUNGAN GLADIATOR ROM DI COLLOSEUM
  38. 38. If you had lived in ancient times, you could have applied to become a Roman citizen. Not everyone who applied was accepted, but anyone could apply. Would you have wanted to become a Roman citizen? You might have. The ancient Romans invented more games than any other ancient civilization. The ancient Romans were very different from the ancient Greeks. The ancient Romans were down-to-earth realists, not idealists. You can see this in their statues. The Greeks made statues of perfect people. The Romans created real life statues. A statue of one of the Roman emperors is a good example. His nose is huge! The ancient Greeks would never have done that. The Romans were fierce soldiers and wonderful builders. They built roads all over the empire, and all roads led to Rome. The ancient Greeks had roads, but they were not built nearly as well, and the Greek's roads did not connect in any particular order. Connect to what? Each Greek city-state was its own unit. In ancient Rome, Rome was the heart of the empire!
  39. 39. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN PERUNDANGAN PERLUASAN KUASA PENINGKATAN EKONOMI PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI SENI BINA BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL T U K E S A H DAPAT FULUS TAPI BUAT SAMPAH SARAP
  40. 40. MAHARAJA
  41. 41. KERAJAAN BERPENGARUH – EMPAYAR MAURYA
  42. 42. Peta Empayar Maurya
  43. 43. TIANG ASOKA
  44. 44. ASHOKA The Kalinga War a Change of Heart During Ashoka's grandfather's time the Kalinga army had only 60,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry and 700 elephants. During Bindusara's reign and at the beginning of Ashoka's reign Kalinga must have improved its armed forces considerably. The mighty Magadha army marched towards Kalinga. Ashoka himself went at the head of his vast army. The Kalinga army resisted the Magadha army and fought bravely. They were not afraid even of death. But their valor and sacrifices were in vain. Every thinner and finally it accepted defeat. Ashoka won a glorious victory. 'What Have I done! True, Ashoka was victorious and Kalinga was his. What was the price of this victory? One of Ashoka's own inscriptions describes it: One and a half people were taken prisoners. A lake was killed during the battle. Many more died as a result of the war.' Ashoka who led the army saw the battlefield with his own eyes. As far as his eye could see he saw only the corpses of elephants and horses, and the limbs of soldiers killed in the battle. There were streams of blood. Soldiers were rolling on the ground in unbearable pain. There were orphaned children. And eagles flew about to feast on the dead bodies. Not one or two but hundreds of terrible sights greeted Ashoka's eyes. His heart was broken with grief and shame. He felt unhappy over the victory, which he had won at the cost of so much suffering. 'What a dreadful deed have I done! I was the head of a vast empire, but I longed to subjugate a small kingdom and caused the death of thousands of soldiers; I widowed thousands of women and orphaned thousands of children. With these oppressive thoughts in his minds he could not stay there any longer. He led his army back towards Pataliputra with a heavy heart.
  45. 45. PENINGKATAN EKONOMI INDIA HASIL PERDAGANGA N HASIL BUAH- BUAHAN SARA ANGGOTA TENTERA, PENTADBIR, RAJA
  46. 46. KEMAJUAN EKONOMI
  47. 47. PENDIDIKAN DI INDIA
  48. 48. FALSAFAH INDIA
  49. 49. SENI BINA
  50. 50. BAHASA DAN KESUSASTERAAN
  51. 51. BAHASA
  52. 52. SISTEM KASTA
  53. 53. TUJUAN KAWAL TINGKAH LAKU MANUSIA
  54. 54. PERUNDANGAN
  55. 55. JALAN SUTERA DARAT
  56. 56. HINDU BUDDHA KRISTIAN ISLAM CONFUCIANISME TAOISME
  57. 57. HINDU
  58. 58. HINDU
  59. 59. TERIMA KASIH

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