Wireless Sensor Networks with emphasis on DSR

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  • Custom animation effects: title fade-in on path and text fade by letter(Intermediate)Tip: For the effects on this slide, use a picture that measures 7.5” high (the height of the slide) and 2.61” wide.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in theDrawing group, clickShapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following: In the ShapeHeight box, enter 3.17”.In the ShapeWidth box, enter 9.5”.Drag the rectangle slightly above the middle of the slide. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Left.Under DrawingTools, on theFormat tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the next to ShapeOutline, and then click NoOutline.Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Orange, Accent 6, Darker 50% (fifth row, 10th option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Orange, Accent 6, Darker 25% (fourth row, 10th option from the left).To reproduce the “heading” text box on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, select TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter the heading text, and then select text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Calibri.In the FontSize box, enter 38.Click Bold.Click the arrow next to FontColor, and then under ThemeColors click Orange, Accent 6, Darker 25% (fourth row, 10th option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click AlignTextLeft.Drag the text box just above the rectangle, in the right half of the slide. To reproduce the second text box on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter three lines of text with paragraph breaks, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Calibri.In the FontSize list, select 28.Click Bold.Click the arrow next to FontColor, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click AlignTextLeft.Drag the second text box onto the rectangle, below the “heading” text box. To reproduce the full-color picture on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in theSlides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, clickPicture. In the InsertPicture dialog box, select the 7.5” x 2.61” picture, and then click Insert.On the slide, select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,in the Bottom box, enter 2.43”. (Note: Under Size and rotate, the Height should now be 5.08”.)On the slide, select the picture. UnderPicture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click Picture Effects, point to Glow, and then under Glow Variations click Accent color 1, 5 pt glow (first row, first option from the left).Also under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the PictureStyles group, click PictureEffects, point to Glow, point to MoreGlowColors, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Drag the full-color picture on top of the rectangle, to the left of the text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Top. To reproduce the second picture on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the InsertPicture dialog box, select the same 7.5” x 2.61” picture, and then click Insert. On the slide, select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,in the Top box, enter 5.08”. (Note: Under Size and rotate, the Height should now be 2.43”.)On the slide, select the second, smaller picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the PictureStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture in the left pane, and in the Picture pane do the following:In the Brightness box, enter 70%.In the Contrast box, enter -70%.On the slide, drag the smaller picture until it is directly underneath the larger full-color picture.Select the smaller picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Bottom. Press and hold CTRL, and then select both pictures. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Center. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. On the slide, select the “heading” text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the animation effect (fade effect for the “heading” text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected text box, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 1.5.In the Speed list, select 2 seconds (Medium).On the slide, select the “heading” text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:ClickAddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the second animation effect (left motion path for the “heading” text box). Under Modify: Left,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, right-click the left motion path and click ReversePathDirection. With the motion path still selected,point to the starting point (green arrow) of the motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting pointabout 1.5” off the left edge of the slide. (Note: It may help to display the ruler. On the View tab, in the Show/Hide group, select Ruler. If your lines of text are longer than in the example above, you may need to further increase the length of the motion path. )On the slide, select the second text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the third animation effect (fade effect for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Effect Options. In the Fade dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, do the following:In the Animate text list, select By Letter.In the % delay between letters box, enter 5.On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select AfterPrevious.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).On the TextAnimation tab, in the Grouptext list, select By 1st Level Paragraphs.To reproduce the background on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 40%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 232, Green: 227, and Blue: 216.
  • Custom animation effects: recolored picture with full-color section and motion path(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout and then click Blank. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, resize or crop the picture as needed so that under Size and rotate, the Height box is set to 3.58” and the Width box is set to 8”. Resize the picture under Size and rotate by entering values into the Height and Width boxes. Crop the picture under Crop from by entering values into the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom boxes. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Adjust group, click Recolor, and then under Dark Variations click Text color 2 Dark (first option from the left). Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click Picture Effects, point to Shadow, and then under Inner click Inside Diagonal Top Left (first row, first option from the left).Drag the picture so that it is positioned above the middle of the slide. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow next to Paste, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL and select both pictures on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Center. Click Align Selected Objects. Click Align Middle. Click the slide background area to cancel the selection of both pictures. Select the duplicate (top) picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter valuesinto the Left andRight boxes so that under Size and rotate, and the Width box is set to 2.33”. (Note: For best results, crop the duplicate picture to tightly focus on a single element in the original picture.)Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Adjust group, click Recolor, and then under No Recolor click No Recolor. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the Shape Height box, enter 7.5”.In the Shape Width box, enter 2.33”.Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Fill, point to Gradient, and then click More Gradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 55%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.On the slide, drag the rectangle to cover the duplicate picture. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Point to Align, and then click Align to Slide.Point to Align, and then click Align Middle. Click Send Backward. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw another rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the Shape Height box, enter 4”.In the Shape Width box, enter 2.67”.Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Fill, point to Gradient, and then click More Gradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select No fill. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, select Solid line in the Line Color pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 70%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane, and then do the following in the Line Style pane:In the Width box, enter 0.75 pt. Click the button next to Dash type, and then click Square Dot (third option from the top).Drag the dotted rectangle on top of the small, full-color picture. Press and hold SHIFT and select the dotted rectangle, the small picture, and the large picture on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects. Click Align Middle. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box, and then on the slide, drag to draw the text box.Enter text in the text box, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, select Gill Sans MT Condensedfrom the Font list, select 24 from the Font Size list, click the button next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center to center the text within the text box.On the slide, drag the text box below the dotted rectangle.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and then select Solid fill in the Fill pane. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 15% (fifth row, second option from the left).To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:To view the area beyond the slide, on the View tab, click Zoom, and then in the Zoom dialog box, in the Percent box, enter 70%. (Note: Make sure that Fit is not selected in the Zoom dialog box.)On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Custom Animation. On the slide, select the dotted rectangle. In the Custom Animation task pane, click Add Effect, point to Motion Paths, point to Draw Custom Path, and then click Freeform. Press and hold SHIFT to conform the path to a straight, horizontal line, and then do the following on the slide:Click the center of the dotted rectangle to create the first motion-path point.Click approximately ½” beyond the right edge of the rectangle to create the second motion-path point. Double-click approximately 2” beyond the left edge of the slide to create the third and final motion-path point. On the slide, right-click the freeform motion path, and then click Reverse Path Direction. On the slide, select the freeform motion path. In the Custom Animation task pane, under Modify: Custom Path, in the Start list, select With Previous. On the slide, select the gradient-filled rectangle. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade, and then click OK. Under Modify: Fade, in the Start list, select With Previous.Under Modify: Fade, in the Speed list, select Very Fast.Click Add Effect, point to Motion Paths, and then click Down.Under Modify: Down, in the Start list, select With Previous. Under Modify: Down, in the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, right-click the down motion path and click ReversePathDirection.On the slide, select the smaller, full-color picture. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade, and then click OK. Under Modify: Fade, in the Start list, select With Previous.Under Modify: Fade, in the Speed list, select Very Fast.Right-click the picture fade effect in the pane, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1.5.On the slide, select the text box. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate, click Descend, and then click OK. Under Modify: Descend, in the Start list, select With Previous. Under Modify:Descend, in the Speed list, select Fast.
  • Wireless Sensor Networks with emphasis on DSR

    1. 1. Wireless Sensor Networks With emphasis on Dynamic Source Routing Protocol
    2. 2. Amrita Biswas Anup Sah Ankoor Sen Baisakhi Chatterjee
    3. 3. WHAT ARE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ?   Large number of heterogeneous Sensor node devices spread over a large field. Wireless sensing + Data Networking. Smart Sensor Nodes:  Low power devices  Consists of- one or more sensors, a processor, memory, a power supply, a radio and an actuator.
    4. 4. EXAMPLE OF WSN
    5. 5. SMART HOME / SMART OFFICE     Monitoring and Tracking Sensors controlling appliances and electrical devices in the house. Better lighting and heating in office buildings. The Pentagon building
    6. 6. FUTURE SCOPE
    7. 7. MILITARY Remote deployment of sensors for tactical monitoring of enemy troop movements.
    8. 8. DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR) PROTOCOL  The DSR is a simple and efficient protocol for routing in mobile, ad hoc and wireless networks.  DSR is suitable for routing in multi-hop networks.  A mobile, ad hoc network is completely selforganizing while using the DSR protocol. All nodes cooperate to forward packets.
    9. 9. THE ROUTING PROBLEM S S´ D´ D The routing problem is to find a route from S to D when some or all of the nodes are mobile.
    10. 10. source broadcasts a packet containing address of source and destination source (1,4) 1 4 The destination sends a reply packet to source. 8 (1,3) destination 3 7 2 (1,2) (1,4,7) The node discards the packets having been seen 5 (1,3,5) 6 (1,3,5,6) The route looks up its route caches to look for a route to destinati If not found, appends its address into the packet
    11. 11. AN EXAMPLE WHEN A ROUTE IS DISCOVERED COMPLETELY D AB A ABCD B A C ABC A is trying to find a route to E Each intermediate node appends its ID at the end. E knows the reverse route and sends a route reply. E
    12. 12. AN EXAMPLE WHEN A ROUTE IS DISCOVERED PARTIALLY D A AB B A C A is trying to find a route to E C already has a route to E in its route cache. C sends back the complete route to A. E
    13. 13. NS FUNCTIONALITY   Discrete event simulator Traffic models and applications   Transport protocols    static routing, DV routing, multicast, ad-hoc routing queuing disciplines: drop-tail, RED, FQ Link layer   TCP (Reno, SACK, etc), UDP, multicast Routing and queuing   Web, FTP, telnet, audio, sensor nets wired, wireless, satellite Infrastructure   tracing, visualization, error models, etc modify or create your own modules
    14. 14. NS COMPONENTS   Ns, the simulator itself (this is all we’ll have time for) nam, the Network AniMator    pre-processing:   visualize Ns (or other) output GUI input simple Ns scenarios traffic and topology generators post-processing:  simple trace analysis, often in Awk, Perl, or Tcl
    15. 15. NS-2 HIERARCHY Agent UDP TCP DSDV Reno AODV TORA DSR Application RBP Vegas RBP Telnet Traffic Queue Droptail RED Exponential NewReno SFQ FullTCP Deq Pareto DRR Sink Enq FQ Sack1 Tap Trace CBR Drop CBQ Trace SRM FTP Adaptive 15
    16. 16. TRACING Tracefile format: ... + 11.533441 1 2 tcp 1440 ------- 12 1.2 2.4 96 2092 r 11.535694 1 2 tcp 1440 ------- 12 1.2 2.4 65 1527 - 11.537214 1 2 exp 180 ------- 100 0.2 2.13 284 1528 <event> <time> <from> <to> <pkt> <dst> <seqno> <aseqno> + 1 0 2 tcp 900 ------- 1 0 2 tcp 900 ------r 1.00234 0 2 tcp 900 ------- + enqueue - dequeue r receive d drop 1 0.0 3.1 7 15 1 0.0 3.1 7 15 1 0.0 3.1 7 15 packet seq packet flags number ID packet flow nodes involved length ID source dest in this event addresses time packet type <size>--<flowid> <src>
    17. 17. DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATOR  NS-2 is an discrete event driven simulation    Physical activities are translated to events Events are queued and processed in the order of their scheduled occurrences Time progresses as the events are processed Time: 1.5 sec 1 Time: 2.0 sec Time: 1.7 sec 2 Time: 1.8 sec
    18. 18. SIMULATION EXAMPLE
    19. 19. Final topology generated
    20. 20. SCREENSHOT OF COLLISION DURING DATA TRANSMISSION
    21. 21. We would like to thank our teacher Mr. Debraj Modak who has been a mentor in this project of ours and has immensely helped us in each step.

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