Controlling is one of the managerial functionslike planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It isan important function because it helps to check theerrors and to take the corrective action so thatdeviation from standards are minimized and statedgoals of the organization are achieved in desiredmanner.According to modern concepts, control is aforeseeing action whereas earlier concept ofcontrol was used only when errors were detected.Control in management means settingstandards, measuring actual performance andtaking corrective action
According to Henri Fayol, Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring.According to Stafford Beer, Management is the profession of control.
Without control there is no use for others functions of management. Control is any process that guides activity towards some pre determined goals. The purpose of the control is to maximize the use of scarce resources and to achieve purposeful behavior of organization members. To find out deviations between planned performance and actual performance. To suggest corrective actions wherever they are needed. Basic requirements of good controlling system:
Control is a continuous process Control is a management process Control is embedded in each level of organizational hierarchy Control is forward looking Control is closely linked with planning Control is a tool for achieving organizational activities
the characteristic or condition to be controlled, the sensor, the comparator , the activator — occur in the same sequence and maintain a consistent relationship to each other in every system
Setting performance standards. Measurement of actual performance. Comparing actual performance with standards. Analyzing deviations. Correcting deviations.
“Planning is required at the very outset of management whereas control is required at the last stages. If planning is looking ahead, control is looking back.”Control and planning are interrelated so closely that they cannot be separated from each other. Without control all the planning is fruitless because control consists of the steps taken to ensure that the performance of the organization conforms to the plans.If planning is looking ahead, control is looking back. In fact, control is the process of checking to determine whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals set by management while doing planning.
Control theory is a theory that deals with influencing the behavior of dynamical systems an interdisciplinary subfield of science, which originated in engineering and mathematics, and evolved into use by the social sciences, likepsychology, sociology, criminology and in financial system. Control systems can be thought of as having four functions; Measure, Compare, Compute, and Correct. These four functions are completed by five elements; Detector, Transducer, Transmitter, Controller, and Final Control Element. The measuring function is completed by the detector, transducer and transmitter. In practical applications these three elements are typically contained in one unit. A standard example is a Resistance thermometer. The compare and computer functions are completed within the controller which may be completed electronically through a Proportional Control, PI Controller, PID Controller, Bistable, Hysteretic control or Programmable logic controller. The correct function is completed with a final control element. The final control element changes an input or output in the control system which affect the manipulated or controlled variable.
Feedback control focuses on organizationalactivities and operations after they are completed.Here Control process starts after the completionof the operations.This type of control focuses on the outputs of the organizationafter transformation is complete.Sometimes called post action or output control , fulfils anumber of important functions. For one thing, it often is usedwhen feed forward and concurrent controls are not feasible orare to costly.
It provides the necessary information to the operating manager to evaluate overall organ effectiveness. It is useful as a basis of evaluating and rewarding employees. It alerts the operating managers who needs to adjust or modify their activities It plays a vital roles in strategic level
The major drawback of this type of control is that, the time the manager has the information and if there is significant problem the damage is already done. But for many activities, feedback control fulfils a number important functions .
Concurrent control takes place while an activity is in progress. Control is applied while the operations are in progress. Since concurrent control involves regulating ongoing tasks, it requires a through understanding of the specific tasks involved and their relationship to the desired and product.
Concurrent control sometimes is called screening or yes-no control , because it often involves checkpoints at which determinations are made about whether to continue progress, take corrective action, or stop work altogether on products or services. Example :Compaq computers has set of 34 check points in its assembly line for successful
This type of control is implemented before an activity starts. It is future directed. It focuses on preventing anticipated problems. It regulates the inputs to ensure that they meet the standards necessary for transformation process.