Evolution
 
 
 
 
Fig. 22-7
 
Descent with modifications
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Organisms evolve in order to better suit an environment.  Evolution involves mutations in the genetic information ...
 
Fig. 22-18 Human embryo Chick embryo (LM) Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail
 
Fig. 22-19 Hawks and other birds Ostriches Crocodiles Lizards and snakes Amphibians Mammals Lungfishes Tetrapod limbs Amni...
Convergent Evolution
 
Human Evolution
 
mtDNA Control Region
 
Two Opposing Theories <ul><li>Multiregional Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Displac...
 
 
 
Molecular Clock
 
 
Published by AAAS A.  Gibbons  Science  328, 680-684 (2010)
Published by AAAS A.  Gibbons  Science  328, 680-684 (2010)
Neandertal Genome Study Reveals That We Have a Little Caveman in Us  Svante Paabo  Europeans and Asians share 1% to 4% of ...
Published by AAAS A.  Gibbons  Science  328, 680-684 (2010)
 
100 Years 1 bp/sec 17 Minutes
 
 
 
Human mtDNA Haplotypes
 
 
Two Factors Effecting Haplotypes <ul><li>Evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Drift. </li></ul>
Genetic Drift
 
My mtDNA Haplotype
 
Genetic Drift
SNP For each individual they analysed half a million SNPs, and then amalgamated the results mathematically to produce two ...
Reproductive Isolation
Habitat Isolation
Temporal Isolation
Behavioral Isolation
Mechanical Isolation
Gametic Isolation
Reduced Hybrid Viability
Reduced Hybrid Fertility + =
Hybrid Breakdown
Fig. 24-4 Prezygotic barriers Habitat Isolation Individuals of  different species Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation ...
Fig. 24-5 (a) Allopatric speciation (b) Sympatric speciation
Fig. 24-14-1 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow
Fig. 24-14-2 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges
Fig. 24-14-3 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zo...
Fig. 24-14-4 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zo...
Breakdown of Reproductive Barriers
Evolution of Populations
Fig. 23-5 Porcupine herd Porcupine herd range Beaufort Sea NORTHWEST TERRITORIES MAP AREA ALASKA CANADA Fortymile herd ran...
Fig. 23-6 Frequencies of alleles Alleles in the population Gametes produced Each egg: Each sperm: 80% chance 80% chance 20...
No mutations
Random mating
No natural selection
Extremely Large Populations
No gene flow
 
 
PV92 and the ALU Transposon SINEs, or Short INterspersed Elements  ~300 bp
ALU  Human Evolution <ul><li>all primates showing an  Alu  insertion at a particular locus have inherited it from a common...
100,000 ALUs Retroposon: rt (reverse trancriptase) Identity by descent  ALU Transposons
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 23-9 Original population Bottlenecking event Surviving population
Genetic Drift
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Honors ~ Evolution 1011

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Honors ~ Evolution 1011

  1. 1. Evolution
  2. 6. Fig. 22-7
  3. 8. Descent with modifications
  4. 17. <ul><li>Organisms evolve in order to better suit an environment. Evolution involves mutations in the genetic information of organisms that lead to changes in the appearance or phenotype of organisms. Factors from the environment that influence survival, such as availability of food, water and shelter, generate random mutations in organisms. Many mutations are neutral; they have no effect on the organism’s phenotype. Some mutations are detrimental and make the organism less likely to survive. If an organism develops a detrimental mutation, it will not have offspring and so the detrimental mutation will not be passed down. If an organism has a beneficial mutation, its offspring will have that beneficial mutation and will be better able to survive and reproduce. This process of random mutation and selection from the environment insures that organisms advance to more and more complex levels of biological structure. </li></ul>
  5. 19. Fig. 22-18 Human embryo Chick embryo (LM) Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail
  6. 21. Fig. 22-19 Hawks and other birds Ostriches Crocodiles Lizards and snakes Amphibians Mammals Lungfishes Tetrapod limbs Amnion Feathers Homologous characteristic Branch point (common ancestor) Tetrapods Amniotes Birds 6 5 4 3 2 1
  7. 22. Convergent Evolution
  8. 24. Human Evolution
  9. 26. mtDNA Control Region
  10. 28. Two Opposing Theories <ul><li>Multiregional Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Displacement Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of Africa theory </li></ul></ul>http://news.bbc.co.uk/
  11. 32. Molecular Clock
  12. 35. Published by AAAS A. Gibbons Science 328, 680-684 (2010)
  13. 36. Published by AAAS A. Gibbons Science 328, 680-684 (2010)
  14. 37. Neandertal Genome Study Reveals That We Have a Little Caveman in Us Svante Paabo Europeans and Asians share 1% to 4% of their nuclear DNA with Neandertals. But Africans do not
  15. 38. Published by AAAS A. Gibbons Science 328, 680-684 (2010)
  16. 40. 100 Years 1 bp/sec 17 Minutes
  17. 44. Human mtDNA Haplotypes
  18. 47. Two Factors Effecting Haplotypes <ul><li>Evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Drift. </li></ul>
  19. 48. Genetic Drift
  20. 50. My mtDNA Haplotype
  21. 52. Genetic Drift
  22. 53. SNP For each individual they analysed half a million SNPs, and then amalgamated the results mathematically to produce two numbers representing that person. This allowed each individual's genome to be shown as a point on a two-dimensional plot: the bigger the differences in the genomes, the greater the distance between them on the plot.
  23. 54. Reproductive Isolation
  24. 55. Habitat Isolation
  25. 56. Temporal Isolation
  26. 57. Behavioral Isolation
  27. 58. Mechanical Isolation
  28. 59. Gametic Isolation
  29. 60. Reduced Hybrid Viability
  30. 61. Reduced Hybrid Fertility + =
  31. 62. Hybrid Breakdown
  32. 63. Fig. 24-4 Prezygotic barriers Habitat Isolation Individuals of different species Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mating attempt Mechanical Isolation Gametic Isolation Fertilization Reduced Hybrid Viability Reduced Hybrid Fertility Postzygotic barriers Hybrid Breakdown Viable, fertile offspring (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (l) (k)
  33. 64. Fig. 24-5 (a) Allopatric speciation (b) Sympatric speciation
  34. 65. Fig. 24-14-1 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow
  35. 66. Fig. 24-14-2 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges
  36. 67. Fig. 24-14-3 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zone Hybrid
  37. 68. Fig. 24-14-4 Gene flow Population (five individuals are shown) Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zone Hybrid Possible outcomes: Reinforcement OR OR Fusion Stability
  38. 69. Breakdown of Reproductive Barriers
  39. 70. Evolution of Populations
  40. 71. Fig. 23-5 Porcupine herd Porcupine herd range Beaufort Sea NORTHWEST TERRITORIES MAP AREA ALASKA CANADA Fortymile herd range Fortymile herd ALASKA YUKON
  41. 72. Fig. 23-6 Frequencies of alleles Alleles in the population Gametes produced Each egg: Each sperm: 80% chance 80% chance 20% chance 20% chance q = frequency of p = frequency of C R allele = 0.8 C W allele = 0.2
  42. 73. No mutations
  43. 74. Random mating
  44. 75. No natural selection
  45. 76. Extremely Large Populations
  46. 77. No gene flow
  47. 80. PV92 and the ALU Transposon SINEs, or Short INterspersed Elements ~300 bp
  48. 81. ALU Human Evolution <ul><li>all primates showing an Alu insertion at a particular locus have inherited it from a common ancestor. This is called identity by descent </li></ul>
  49. 82. 100,000 ALUs Retroposon: rt (reverse trancriptase) Identity by descent ALU Transposons
  50. 88. Fig. 23-9 Original population Bottlenecking event Surviving population
  51. 89. Genetic Drift

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