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Honors ~ Ecology introduction 1112


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Honors ~ Ecology introduction 1112

  1. 1. Overview: The Scope of Ecology <ul><li>Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere </li></ul>
  2. 2. Fig. 52-1
  3. 3. Eschrichtius robustus <ul><li>What environmental factors determine geographical distribution? </li></ul><ul><li>How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology
  5. 5. <ul><li>Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A community is a group of populations of different species in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>An ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A landscape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fig. 52-4
  12. 12. Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km 2 0–0.1 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species </li></ul>
  14. 14. Climate <ul><li>Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind </li></ul><ul><li>The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate </li></ul><ul><li>Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level </li></ul><ul><li>Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fig. 52-20 Tropical forest Temperate grassland Desert Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annual mean temperature (ºC) Annual mean precipitation (cm) 30 15 0 0 – 15 100 200 300 400
  16. 16. Fig. 52-21g Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina
  17. 17. Coral Reefs
  18. 20. Acropora millipora Orange Bushy Coral 
  19. 28. Bicarbonate Buffer System
  20. 44. Coral Combat
  21. 47. Kane’ohe Bay
  22. 49. Eucheuma denticulatum
  23. 52. Urchin Side
  24. 53. Non-urchin Side
  25. 55. Florida Key Reef Monitoring
  26. 70. Coral Bleaching
  27. 71. Decline Timeline <ul><li>1973-74: Black band disease makes its appearance in the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>1978-79: Staghorn and elkhorn corals suffer die-off in Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>1980-81: Staghorn and elkhorn corals die in Jamaica. </li></ul><ul><li>1982-83: Staghorn and elkhorn corals die throughout the Caribbean (major El-Niño). Sea urchin Diadema , a key reef herbivore, dies throughout the Caribbean, allowing algal infestation of dead corals. </li></ul><ul><li>1985-87: Black band disease rampant in Florida. Corals bleach throughout the Caribbean and seas grasses die in Florida (major El-Niño). </li></ul><ul><li>1990: Corals bleach in Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Corals bleach in Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>1998: Corals bleach throughout the Caribbean (major El-Niño). </li></ul>
  28. 72. Black Band Disease