Honors - Carbon & organic compounds 1011

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Honors - Carbon & organic compounds 1011

  1. 1. Organic Compounds
  2. 2. CarboxylHydroxylCarbonylAminoSulfhydrylMethylPhosphate
  3. 3. Hemoglobin JMOL
  4. 4. Functions of Proteins When in doubt…..proteins
  5. 5. Enzymes
  6. 6. Enzymes
  7. 7. Storage
  8. 8. Structural
  9. 9. Transport
  10. 10. Hormonal
  11. 11. Receptor
  12. 12. Contractile & Motor
  13. 13. Defensive
  14. 14. • This lysozyme protein molecule is found in tears and protects the eye from bacterial infections. Which of the following best describes the outside of the molecule? a) Mostly hydrophobic R-groups are on the surface of the molecule. b) Mostly hydrophilic R-groups are on the surface of the molecule. c) The R-groups on exterior of the molecule are mostly non-polar. d) The R-groups on the exterior are constantly changing between non-polar and polar as the protein chain bends and folds.
  15. 15. •This lysozyme protein molecule is found in tears and protects the eye from bacterial infections. Which of the following best describes the outside of the molecule? b) Mostly hydrophilic R-groups are on the surface of the molecule.
  16. 16. Initial Velocity (V0 or VI)
  17. 17. Initial Velocity (V0 or VI)
  18. 18. Vmax
  19. 19. Enzymatic Pathway
  20. 20. Starch Glucose Starch Monomers vs. polymers
  21. 21. High- Fructose Corn Syrup
  22. 22. Enzyme
  23. 23. HFCS and enzymes • Cornstarch is treated with alpha-amylase to produce shorter chains of sugars called oligosaccharides. • Glucoamylase - which is produced by Aspergillus, a fungus, in a fermentation vat — breaks the sugar chains down even further to yield the simple sugar glucose. • Xylose isomerase (aka glucose isomerase) converts glucose to a mixture of about 42% fructose and 50–52% glucose with some other sugars mixed in.
  24. 24. Hemoglobin JMOL
  25. 25. •When proteins are heated, they usually denature. If moderate heat was applied to this molecule of DNA what part of the molecule would break down or break apart first? (Use your knowledge of chemical bonds.) A The nucleotides along each side would break apart. B The sugar-phosphate backbone would separate from the nitrogen bases. C The nitrogen base pairs would separate in the interior of the molecule.
  26. 26. •When proteins are heated, they usually denature. If moderate heat was applied to this molecule of DNA what part of the molecule would break down or break apart first? (Use your knowledge of chemical bonds.) C The nitrogen base pairs would separate in the interior of the molecule.
  27. 27. Monomers and Polymers
  28. 28. LACTASE: LCT (Single Mutation) AMYLASE: AMY Gene (multiple copies)
  29. 29. Enzymes
  30. 30. Concept Check • Malonate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Describe how malonate would prevent the enzyme form acting on its normal substrate succinate?

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