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Construction Materials Engineering and Testing


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Construction Materials Engineering and Testing

  1. 1. ATLANTIC TESTING LABORATORIES Construction Materials Engineering & Testing New York State County Highway Superintendents Association August 30, 2011
  2. 2. Construction MaterialsEngineering & TestingSoil/AggregateConcreteMasonry
  3. 3. QA/QC ProgramMaterials TestingSpecialInspection
  4. 4. Construction MaterialsEngineering & TestingQuality Control-Verify materials inaccordance with contract documentsTests performed in accordance withapplicable standards (e.g. ASTM,ACI,AASHTO, NYSDOT)Correlation between quality materials andquality projectOptions
  5. 5. Soil PropertiesShear StrengthCompressibility/ConsolidationPermeability
  6. 6. Soil - Laboratory Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (with and without hydrometer) (ASTM D422) Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard (ASTM D698) and Modified effort (ASTM D1557) Atterberg Limits (ASTM D4318): Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Plasticity Index Expansion Index (ASTM D4829)
  7. 7. Soil-Laboratory CompactionValues Optimum Optimum Dry Moisture (%) Density (pcf) Gravel 4-8 130-150 Sand 6-13 100-135 Silt 10-18 90-130 Clay 15-30 80-130
  8. 8. Soil - LaboratoryPermeability Testing Rigid Wall (ASTM D2434) Flex Wall (ASTM D5084)
  9. 9. Aggregate-Laboratory Pre-qualification testing to identify qualityaggregates for subsequent approval and production Evaluate aggregate properties against federal,state, or private standards
  10. 10. Aggregate-Laboratory Aggregate Soundness (ASTM C88, NYSDOT) Specific gravity and absorption of aggregate (ASTM C127/128) Resistance of coarse aggregates to freezing & thawing (NYSDOT) Unit weight and voids in aggregate (ASTM C29) Flat and Elongated Particles (ASTM D4791)
  11. 11. Aggregate-Laboratory
  12. 12. Aggregate-Laboratory
  13. 13. Soil - Field Aggregate Sampling (ASTM D75) Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In-place by: Nuclear Method (ASTM D2922) Other: Sand Cone (ASTM D1556) and Rubber Balloon Method (ASTM D2167)
  14. 14. Soil - Field
  15. 15. Soil - Field Field Compaction Soil Type, Material Gradation, Water Content, Lift Thickness, Compactive Effort % = Field Dry Density/Laboratory Dry Density Compaction Issues Problem Soils Oversize Particles Degradation Gap-Graded
  16. 16. Soil Properties
  17. 17. Soil - Field
  18. 18. Soil - Field
  19. 19. Soil - Field
  20. 20. Soil - Field
  21. 21. Soil - Field
  22. 22. Soil - Field
  23. 23. Concrete Properties Strength Durability Permeability
  24. 24. Concrete-Mix Design Starts in the Laboratory-Develop Economical, Workable Mix to Meet Project Requirements Proportioning Strength, Environment, Unit Weight W/C Ratio, Entrained Air Aggregates Other Admixtures Performed Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions Compressive Strength Based on 28-Day Curing Time
  25. 25. Concrete - Field Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete Unit Weight of Freshly Mixed Concrete Temperature of Freshly Mixed Concrete Fabrication of compressive strength specimens
  26. 26. Concrete - FieldSampling of Freshly Mixed Concrete(ASTM C172) Representative composite sample Collected from middle portion of batch 1 cu. ft. for compressive strength specimens Sampling Point
  27. 27. Concrete - Field
  28. 28. Concrete - FieldSlump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete (ASTM C143) Measures concrete consistency Started within 5 min. after sample collection Not indicative of water content or concrete strength
  29. 29. Concrete - Field Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) ASTM C1611 - Slump Flow ASTM C1621 - Passing Ability ASTM C1610 - Static Segregation
  30. 30. Concrete - FieldAir Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete ASTM C231-Pressure Method Normal and Heavy Weight ASTM C173-Volumetric Method Light Weight Entrained and entrapped air Too little air reduces freeze-thaw resistance Excessive air reduces strength and durability Can be affected by concrete temperature and pumping to placement
  31. 31. Concrete - FieldUnit Weight of Freshly Mixed Concrete(ASTM C138) Indicative of a change in concrete properties Concrete yield Important for light and heavy weight concrete
  32. 32. Concrete - FieldTemperature of Freshly Mixed Concrete(ASTM C1064) Measured in container or formwork Used to evaluate curing and strength development
  33. 33. Concrete - FieldFabrication of Compressive StrengthSpecimens (ASTM C31) Used for strength determination Started within 15 minutes of sample collection Mold sizes Laboratory vs. field cured specimens
  34. 34. Concrete - Field
  35. 35. Concrete - Laboratory Material finer than 75 microns (ASTM C117) Dry Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates (ASTM C136) Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens (ASTM C39)
  36. 36. Concrete - Laboratory
  37. 37. Concrete - Laboratory
  38. 38. Concrete - LaboratoryOther Tests: Flexural Strength (ASTM C78) Cement Testing (ASTM C150) Rapid Chloride Permeability (ASTM C1202)
  39. 39. Concrete-In-Place EvaluationCoring (ASTM C42)Rebound hammer (ASTM C805)Windsor probe (ASTM C803)Maturity method (ASTM C1074)
  40. 40. Concrete-Coring
  41. 41. Concrete-Rebound Hammer
  42. 42. Concrete-Maturity
  43. 43. Concrete-Maturity 5,000 4,500 Day 14 Average 4,000 Day 28Compressive Strength (psi) Average 3,500 3,000 Day 7 2,500 Average 2,000 Day 3 1,500 Average 1,000 Day 1 500 Average Average 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Maturity (ºC-Hours)
  44. 44. Masonry - Laboratory Water Retention and Air Content Determination (ASTM C91) Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Mortars (ASTM C109) Sampling and Testing CMUs and Related Units (ASTM C140) Mortar Water Content (ASTM C140) Mortar Aggregate Ratio (ASTM C780) Compressive Strength of Molded Masonry Mortar Cylinders and Cubes (ASTM C780) Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms (ASTM C1314)
  45. 45. Masonry - Laboratory
  46. 46. Masonry - Laboratory
  47. 47. Masonry - Field Sampling and Testing of Grout (ASTM C1019) Slump of Freshly Mixed Grout Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method Compressive Strength of Molded Masonry Cylinders and Cubes (ASTM C780) Fabricate mortar and grout compressive strength cubes, cylinders, or specimens Collect samples of concrete masonry units, field mixed mortar, or mortar batch materials for laboratory testing
  48. 48. Final Comments Properly trained, certified, and approved testing personnel Performed in accordance with the appropriate test procedures Timely reporting of test results
  49. 49. Question & Answer
  50. 50. Question and AnswerWhat organization publishes standards for the sampling, testing, and evaluation of soil/aggregate, concrete, and masonry construction materials? Answer: ASTM
  51. 51. Question and AnswerWhat are two of the most common laboratory tests performed on soils for use as fill in building construction? Answer: Particle Size Analysis and Laboratory Compaction
  52. 52. Question and AnswerWhat is the most common test method for evaluating the in-place density of fill materials? Answer: Nuclear Density
  53. 53. Question and AnswerWhat are three of the most common tests performed on fresh, plastic concrete? Answer: Slump, Air, and Temperature
  54. 54. Question and AnswerTrue or False: Non-Destructive Test methods, such as the rebound hammer, may be used as the sole basis for the acceptance or rejection of suspect hardened concrete? Answer: False
  55. 55. Question and AnswerTrue or False: Clay soils typically have a higher optimum dry density than gravel soils. Answer: False
  56. 56. Question and AnswerTrue or False: Air-entraining admixtures are added to plastic concrete to provide freeze/thaw protection. Answer: True
  57. 57. Question and AnswerWhat are two methods for evaluating masonry materials during construction? Answer: Individual components and Prisms
  58. 58. Question and AnswerThe design compressive strength of concrete is based on a cure time of ______ days? Answer: 28 days
  59. 59. Question and AnswerTrue or False: An increase in the air content of concrete will increase the concrete’s compressive strength? Answer: False