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Companion Animal Dentistry Kk


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Companion Animal Dentistry Kk

  1. 1. Companion Animal Dentistry
  2. 2. Dental Prophylaxis vs. Dental Cleaning <ul><li>Prophylaxis : preventative treatment of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning: often times periodontal disease is already present </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tooth Anatomy
  4. 4. Parts of the Tooth <ul><li>Crown – enamel </li></ul><ul><li>Root - cemental </li></ul><ul><li>Dentin – porous – hot/cold travels to nerve here </li></ul><ul><li>Apex - root tips </li></ul><ul><li>Gingival Sulcus – normal space between free gingiva and crown surface (1-3mm in dogs, 0.5-1mm in cats) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp Chamber – houses nerves/blood vessels – connects to root canal </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal Ligament – attaches to cemental surface and aveolar bone (spongy bone) on opposite end </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dental Vocabulary <ul><li>Furcation – where roots separate – only on multi-rooted teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Enamel – hard surface protecting crown of tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Cemental Enamel Junction (CEJ) – where cementum and enamel meet </li></ul><ul><li>Occlusal Surface – biting surface-usually in reference to molars </li></ul><ul><li>Cusp – pointed surface </li></ul><ul><li>Mucul Gingival Line – were free gingiva and attached gingiva meet </li></ul>
  6. 6. Enamel <ul><li>Hardest substance in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Helps prevent fracture of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness of enamel in </li></ul><ul><li>animals is 1/3 that of </li></ul><ul><li>human enamel </li></ul>
  7. 7. Surface Terminology
  8. 8. <ul><li>Incisor – (nibble) single rooted </li></ul><ul><li>Canine – (fang teeth) single, yet more extensive root - 1/3 crown, 2/3 root that extends back to second premolar </li></ul><ul><li>Premolar – (biting/chewing) first is single rooted, second/third is double rooted, fourth is three rooted </li></ul><ul><li>Molar – three rooted (tearing/gripping) </li></ul><ul><li>Carnassial Tooth – “meat </li></ul><ul><li>shearing” – 4 th upper premolar </li></ul><ul><li>and 1 st lower molar- </li></ul><ul><li>consistent in cats and dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Mesial root – closest to middle of </li></ul><ul><li>jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Palatal root – closest to palate – </li></ul><ul><li>distal </li></ul>
  9. 9. Root System Recap <ul><li>Single Rooted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st premolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd lower molar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double Rooted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper 2 nd and 3 rd premolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower premolars and molars except for M3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple Rooted – no 3 rooted teeth in the mandible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper 4 th premolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper first molar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper 2 nd molar </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Dental Formulas <ul><li>Canine Permanent Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3) = 42 </li></ul><ul><li>Canine Deciduous Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>2(i 3/3, c 1/1, p 3/3) = 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Feline Permanent Teeth </li></ul><ul><li> 2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1) = 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Feline Deciduous Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>2(i 3/3, c 1/1, p 3/2) = 26 </li></ul><ul><li>I/i – incisor C/c – canine </li></ul><ul><li>P/p – premolar M/m - molar </li></ul>
  11. 11. Anatomic System Examples <ul><li>4 th upper right premolar = </li></ul><ul><li>PM 4 </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd lower left premolar = </li></ul><ul><li>3 PM </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left canine = </li></ul><ul><li>1 C </li></ul>
  12. 12. Triadan System <ul><li>Uses a 3 number system to identify teeth </li></ul><ul><li>First number = quadrant tooth is located in </li></ul><ul><li>Second/Third numbers = identification number of tooth, which is always </li></ul><ul><li>represented by two </li></ul><ul><li>numbers for a total of </li></ul><ul><li>10 teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Upper right = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper left = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left = 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower right = 4 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tips To Remember in Dogs <ul><li>1 st central incisor always = 01 </li></ul><ul><li>Canine always = 04 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper carnassial always = 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower carnassial always = 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Premolars are numbered 05 – 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Molars are numbered 09 - 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>103 = upper right third incisor </li></ul><ul><li>204 = upper left canine </li></ul><ul><li>308 = lower left 4 th premolar </li></ul><ul><li>409 = lower right 1 st molar </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diagram of Triadan System in a Dog
  15. 15. Tips to Remember in Cats <ul><li>1 st central incisor always = 01 </li></ul><ul><li>Canine always = 04 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper carnassial always = 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower carnassial always = 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Premolars are numbered 05 – 08 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cats do not have a 1 st premolar, therefore there is no 05 in cats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molars are numbered 09 and 10 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diagram of Triadan System in a Cat
  17. 17. Pros and Cons of Each System <ul><li>Triadan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to human dental system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing/hard to memorize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses familiar terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscripts are not computer friendly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Three Major Components of Dental Calculi <ul><li>1) food particles (calcium) </li></ul><ul><li>2) saliva (contains glycoprotein) </li></ul><ul><li>3) bacteria – has been identified and linked to organ problems within the liver, kidneys, heart and lungs such as </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria endocarditis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Calculi vs. Plaque <ul><li>Plaque – white filmy stuff/cotton mouth - precursor to calculi </li></ul><ul><li>Calculi/tartar – unbrushed plaque hardens and becomes calculi – NOT THE SAME AS PLAQUE </li></ul>
  20. 20. Formation of Calculi <ul><li>Eat a meal </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired pellicle (glycoprotein) attaches to surface of tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria colonize forming plaque </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria die and attract more bacteria – absorbs calcium from saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Results in new substance called calculus </li></ul><ul><li>Vicious cycle because eating is unavoidable and provides calcium which in return aids in binding plaque to teeth </li></ul>
  21. 21. Periodontal Disease <ul><li>Periodontitis , formerly known as Pyorrhea alveolaris , is the name of a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth . </li></ul><ul><li>Involves progressive loss of the bone around teeth which may lead to loosening and eventual loss of teeth if untreated. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by bacteria that adhere to and grow on tooth surfaces ( microbial plaque or biofilms ), particularly in areas under the gum line. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades <ul><li>Grade 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, marginal gingivitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival Sulcus at normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation – red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Grade 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate gingivitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red line appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts to cut off blood supply to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival Sulcus still normal depth because no bone loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival bleeding upon probing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced gingivitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still reversible </li></ul></ul>Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades
  24. 24. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades <ul><li>Grade 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival bleeding upon probing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pustular discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight to moderate bone loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival recession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingival Sulcus > 3mm in a dog = pocket formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Reversible </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades <ul><li>Grade 4: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all of Grade 3 and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone and ligament (supporting structures) affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in teeth mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe bone loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligament detachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Reversible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxing on immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooth sensitivity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cavities In Animals <ul><li>Very rare – almost never occur </li></ul><ul><li>Occur from the outside in </li></ul><ul><li>Simple carbs breakdown leading to cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence being higher in pets fed cheaper foods because of lack of quality is questionable </li></ul><ul><li>pH has to be conducive – broad spectrum within a species </li></ul><ul><li>Resorptive lesions in cats are not cavities because they occur from the inside out </li></ul>