Sources of energy.


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Sources of energy.

  1. 1. “ SOURCES OF ENERGY” RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE sources 08/27/10 06:16
  2. 2. 08/27/10 06:16 <ul><li>Types of resources. Problems of Non-renewable energy & methods to reduce pollution and conserve resources. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives 08/27/10 06:16 <ul><li>To understand what a resource is. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the difference between non-renewable and renewable resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the advantages/disadvantages of using non-renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how we can conserve resources/reduce pollution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a resource??? <ul><li>A) Things that humans can use. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Fuel supplies already discovered that can be used in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Recovery of waste products to convert into materials that can be used again. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  5. 5. Why has Resource use Increased? <ul><li>Population Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in purchasing power in LEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in disposable income . </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  6. 6. Energy <ul><li>Energy creates the power to drive tools and machines, to process materials into manufactured products and to create structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is generated from nonrenewable energy sources such as coal, oil, and gas, or can be generated from natural resources such as geothermal, solar, and gravitational energies. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  7. 7. Classifications of Energy Sources : 08/27/10 06:16 Limited Oil Coal Natural gas Uranium Unlimited Solar Wind Gravitational Tidal Geothermal Fusion Renewable Wood Biomass gasification Animal Power Human Muscle Power
  8. 8. The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the Nation's Energy Supply, 2007 08/27/10 06:16
  9. 9. Energy use increase as a country develops : <ul><li>A) As countries become more developed there is a greater demand for energy because people get more materialistic and buy more products which use energy both in their manufacture as well as in their use. For example, people will buy labour saving devices like cars and dishwashers. These both use up energy when they are made and every time they are used. Also, as countries develop their industries develop and industry is a large consumer of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B) As countries get richer they use more energy because everybody gets cars and electrical goods. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  10. 10. 08/27/10 06:16 <ul><li>These both use lots of oil and electricity, so this is why energy use will increase. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Energy use might increase as a country gets more developed because when a country gets richer its population increases dramatically. This rise in population means that more coal and gas is needed to heat their homes. They will also need lots more petrol and diesel to fuel all the extra cars and lorries that will be on the road. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of Resources <ul><li>Natural resources are Classified by </li></ul><ul><li>two types :- </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Non-renewable resource </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  12. 12. What is Renewable Energy? <ul><li>Renewable energy is energy created from natural sources. This includes sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat. With global warming, such as climate change, concerns linked to high oil prices, the drive for more renewable energy is being lobbied by local governments. Not only would renewable energy help with the global warming concerns, but also may help turn around the recent economic crisis. This would mean less money spent on expensive fossil fuels and more focus on renewable energy sources. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  13. 13. What is meant by the term Non-Renewable Energy??? <ul><li>A) Resources which cannot be used again and again, like water and wind. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, which are finite, and will eventually run out are examples. Once they have been used they can’t be used again. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Fossil fuels made from trees and plants. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  14. 14. Advantages of Natural Resources: <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Clean </li></ul><ul><li>Do not damage the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Non renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Very cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Can produce a lot of energy in a short time </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  15. 15. Disadvantages of Natural Resources : <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to build </li></ul><ul><li>Can be noisy </li></ul><ul><li>Generally unattractive </li></ul><ul><li>Does not produce </li></ul><ul><li>‘ lots’ of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Non renewable </li></ul><ul><li>They will run out </li></ul><ul><li>Very ‘dirty’ </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful to the environment </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  16. 16. Energy sources : 08/27/10 06:16
  17. 17. Non-renewable energy resources : <ul><li>Non-renewable types of energy can only be used once. There is a finite amount of these materials on the Earth so they will run out eventually. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of the world’s energy. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  18. 18. 08/27/10 06:16 fossil fuels nuclear coal gas oil fuelwood Non-renewable energy biomass mineral
  19. 19. Fossil fuels – How much is left ? 08/27/10 06:16
  20. 20. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES: <ul><li>COAL </li></ul><ul><li>Although coal is found in many places throughout the world, nearly half of it is located in the United States. Of the 700 million tons of coal mined each year in the United States, two- thirds is burned to fuel electric generating plants. The remainder is used to provide heat for buildings and to make steel and other industrial products. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  21. 21. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES: <ul><li>GEOTHERMAL POWER </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy comes from the tremendous heat trapped deep within the earth. Natural steam geysers are used to generate electricity. Hot water can also be pumped out of the ground to heat buildings. Geothermal sources account for less than 1 % of the total energy produced In the United States. Most of the sources are in the western third of the nation. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  22. 22. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES: <ul><li>NATURAL GAS </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that there is only enough natural gas in the world to last for 20 more years. Most of the recoverable supplies are found In the U.S.S.R., the Middle East, and the United States. Natural gas provides about 32% of the total energy used in the United States. Some natural gas is used for home heating and cooking, but most is used in industry. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  23. 23. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES: <ul><li>NUCLEAR POWER </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power requires uranium as the fuel source. When uranium atoms are split (fission), heat is released. Water is circulated through the reactor to keep it cool. As the water turns to steam, it is forced through a turbine to generate electricity. There are 52 nuclear generating plants, which provide about 1 % of our total energy in the United States. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  24. 24. Ten things about Fossil Fuels: <ul><li>Three main types: oil; coal; natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Take millions of years to form </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be replaced once used: non-renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Found beneath the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to get to </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt to give off heat </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt in power stations to generate electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Give off carbon dioxide when burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood is a fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>One day they could run out </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  25. 25. Disadvantages of using fossil fuels: <ul><li>Acid Rain (due to pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming (due to pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource depletion & competition </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  26. 26. Acid Rain 08/27/10 06:16
  27. 27. How can acid rain be managed? <ul><li>fluidized bed technology </li></ul><ul><li>(limestone is burnt with the coal so that the sulfur remains with the limestone) </li></ul><ul><li>gas flue desulfurization </li></ul><ul><li>(water is sprayed down the chimneys and this turns the gases to sulfuric and nitric acids) </li></ul><ul><li>use less energy more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>use more nuclear or renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>burn coal that contains less sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>construct taller chimneys </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  28. 28. Global Warming <ul><li>The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere, probably due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  29. 29. Greenhouse Effect 08/27/10 06:16
  30. 30. 08/27/10 06:16 The predicted impacts of global warming on the world. Permafrost ground will melt, causing massive landslides. Oil pipelines, houses and road foundations will be disintegrated Arctic ice cap melts. Rising temperatures worldwide would cause ski resorts to be wrecked as heat will melt the snow & ice there. Forests are damaged by heat and drought Bangladesh is already prone to flooding, so rising water levels could devastate the country . Water shortages in the Middle East would cause the River Nile to dry up due to intense evaporation. Mediterranean beaches will vanish as water levels rise. Sahara desert could move northwards, even as far as Spain. Heavy storms not only threaten southern USA, but also the insurance companies in the area face bankruptcy.
  31. 31. 08/27/10 06:16 Below are a list of things that could be done to try to tackle global warming. Switch off lights & appliances Taxes on high polluting industries Choose energy efficient appliances Sign up to the Kyoto Protocol Recycle Use less fossil fuels and more renewable energy sources Use energy efficient transport Car sharing Improved public transport Higher taxes on polluting cars Grants for businesses that have clean policies Energy efficient light bulbs Offset carbon emissions Local Holidays
  32. 32. Why it is important to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released? <ul><li>A) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for accelerating the natural greenhouse effect which is causing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>B) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for causing a hole in the earth’s ozone layer which is causing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>C) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because It is responsible for causing acid rain which erodes buildings. </li></ul>08/27/10 06:16
  33. 33. How else can we preserve resources and reduce pollution? 08/27/10 06:16 Resource Substitution This is where you use one product in place of another one. For example using aluminium instead of tin cans as it is cheaper and easier to recycle. Recycling Recovery of waste products by converting them into materials that can be used again. For example glass bottles, aluminium cans (only uses 5% of energy it takes to make them from scratch) Energy Efficiency Measures to reduce heat and energy loss. Individually this means switching off lights, using low energy light bulbs, insulating our homes. Also government has introduced building regulations and energy efficiency ratings on electrical products, more energy efficient cars – car in Europe is on average 90% cleaner than 10 years ago. Reducing Pollution Measures to stop emission reaching atmosphere or cleaning the emissions before they do. For example. fitting giant scrubbers on coal power stations, trying to switch from coal to gas power stations and fitting catalytic converters to cars. Alternative Energy Sources Energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels. These can include nuclear or renewable sources such as wind or solar.
  34. 34. Renewable Energy Resources 08/27/10 06:16
  35. 35. Thank you……… 08/27/10 06:16