GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/1
General Objective : To understand the concept of general dynamics
Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to :
relate linear and angular velocity, linear and angular acceleration.
solve problem using equation uniformly accelerated and angular
describe tangent acceleration and centripetal acceleration, centripetal
and centrifugal force, work and power.
explain the principle conservation of energy and momentum.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/2
A vector quantity requires a number and a direction to specify it completely; that is, a
vector has magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are velocity, acceleration and
Mechanics is the study of
object or bodies, as we
shall call them, when
subjected to force.
1.1 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
The velocity of a body may be defined as its rate of change of displacement, with
respect to its surroundings, in a particular direction. As the velocity is always
expressed in a particular direction, it is also a vector quantity.
The acceleration of a body may be defined as the rate of change of its velocity. It is
said to be positive, when the change in velocity of a body increases with time, and
negative when the velocity decreases with time. The negative acceleration is also
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/3
In general, the term acceleration is used to denote the rate at which the velocity is
changing. It may be uniform or variable.
1.2 EQUATION FOR LINEAR, UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED MOTION
Suppose a body moving in a straight line has an initial speed u and that it undergoes
uniform acceleration a for time t considering, let the final speed be v and the distance
traveled in the time t be s. The speed –time curve will be show in fig.1.1
Fig. 1.1 Uniform – accelerated linear motion.
Acceleration a is uniform, its magnitude is
change in speed
change in time
or at = v – u
or v = u + at (1.1)
In this case, the average speed will be the speed at time t/2.
Hence average speed = 1 ( u + v)
Further, since distance travel = average speed x t then s = 1 ( u + v)t (1.2)
Substituting for v from (1.1) into (1.2) gives
s = 1 ( u + u + at )/ t
Or s = u t + 1 at2
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/4
Substituting for t from (1.1) into (1.2) gives
s = 1 ( u + v ) (v - u )/ a
or 2as = v - u2
or v2 = u2 + 2as
A workman drops a hammer from the top of scaffolding. If the speed of sound in air is
340 m/s, how long does the workman have before shouting to another workman 60 m
vertically below him if his warning is to arrive before the hammer. Neglect air
Inertial speed = 0 m/s.
Acceleration = 9.81 m/s2.
Distance = 60 m
s = ut + 1 at2
60 = 0 + ½ (9.81)2
t = 3.50s
The hammer takes 3.50 s to fall 60 m. The sound takes = 0.18 to travel the same
distance so the workman has (3.50 – 0.18) = 3.32 s before shouting if the sound is to
arrive before the hammer.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/5
1.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR SPEED AND ANGULAR SPEED
If a point P moves round in a circle with a of radius r with constant linear speed v then
the angular speed will be constant and
where t is the time to move from Q to P along the arc QP of the curve. Fig 1.2
Fig. 1.2 Circular motion
However, arc length QP is r when is measured in radians and hence linear
speed v is
arc QP r
V= = (1.4)
Using (1.3) and (1.4) leads to
V = r for circular motion. (1.5)
Or linear speed = radius x angular speed.
What is the peripheral speed of the tread on a tire of a motor car if the wheel spins about
the axle with an angular velocity of 6 radian/ second. Diameter of tires is 0.7 m.
V = r where r = 0.35 m and = 6 rad/s
= 0.35 x 6
V = 2.1 m/s
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/6
1.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR ACCELERATION AND ANGULAR
By equation and V = r
d 1 dv
Hence since r is constant
v r dt
However is linear acceleration a
Or a = r
Or linear acceleration = radius x angular acceleration
A grinding wheel is accelerated uniformly from rest to 3000 rev/min in 3 seconds.
Find it angular and linear acceleration. If the wheel diameter is 200 mm, find the final
linear speed of a point on its rim.
t = 3s
1 = 0 rad/s
2 = 3000 rev/min = 2πN/60
2 x x 3000
= 314.16 rad/s
= 104.72 rad/s2
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/7
a = r
= 0.1 x 104.72
a = 10.47 m/s2
v = r 2
= 0.1 x 314.16
= 31.42 m/s
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/8
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
1.1 Which of the following is a vector quantity?.
A. density B. speed C. area D. acceleration
1.2 Velocity is the rate of change with time of
A. displacement B. acceleration C. speed D. distance
1.3 When a body moves round a circle with radius r at uniform speed v,
the angular speed ω is
A. vr B. v/r C. v2/r D. 2πv
1.4 A 5 kg block, at rest on a smooth horizontal surface, is acted on by a resultant
force of 2.5 N parallel to the surface. The acceleration, in m/s2 is
A. 0.5 B. 2 C. 12.5 D. 2000
1.5 A car travel along a straight road at a steady speed of 13 m/s, accelerates
uniformly for 15 s until it is moving at 25 m/s. Find its acceleration.
1.6 A particle moves from rest with an acceleration of 2 m/s2. Determine the
velocity and displacement of the particle after 20 seconds.
1.7 A parcel, starting at rest, is moved by conveyor belt with an acceleration of
1.5 m/s2. What will its velocity be after it has moved 3 meters?
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/9
S = ½ ( u + v) t
V = u + at
V2 = u2 + 2as
S = ut + ½ at.
Feedback to Activity 1A
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now
1.1 D. acceleration
1.2 A. displacement
1.3 B. v/r
1.4 A. 0.5
1.5 0.8 m/s2
1.6 40 m/s; 400 m.
1.7 3 m/s.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/10
1.5 WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE
Work done = Force x distance.
Unit of work is joule (J) or
When the point at which a force acts moves, the force is said to have done work. When
the force is constant, the work done is defined as work done = force x distance moved
in the direction of the force. It is a scalar quantity.
If a constant force F moves a body from A to B then distance moved in the direction
of F is s cos fig.1.3. The work done by a constant force is thus:
Work done = F s cos
fig. 1.3 Notation for the work done
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/11
If the body moves in the same direction as the force, where by = 00 and
work done is Fs. Work done is zero if direction force = 900. If F is in Newton and
s is in meters, the work done will be measured in joules (J)
How much work is done when a force of 5 KN moves its point of application 600 mm
in the direction of the force.
Work done = force x distance
= 5 X 103 X 600 X10-3
= 3000 J
= 3 KJ.
Power is the rate of doing work, i.e. the work done in unit time. The SI unit of power
is the watt; it is 1 joule per second and is written 1 W. The British unit of power use
earlier was the Horse- Power, and is equivalent to about 746 watts . If a force of F
Newton keeps its point of application moving in the direction of the force with
uniform speed v meters per second, the work done per second is Fv joules, and is the
power is Fv watts.
The total mass of an engine and train is 200 Mg; what is the power of the engine if it
can just keep the train moving at a uniform speed of 100 km/h1 on the level, the
resistances to friction, amounting to of the weight of the train.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/12
Since the speed is uniform, the pull of the engine is equal to the total resistance,
i.e. 1000g N.= 1000 x 9.81 = 9810 N.
The speed is 100 km/h1 = 1000/36 m/s
The work per second = 1000 x 9.8 x 1000/36 J
Power = 105 x 2.72 W
= 272 kW
The energy may be defined as the capacity to do work. It exists in many form e.g.
Mechanical, electrical, chemical, heat, light etc. But in applied Mechanics, we shall
deal in Mechanical Energy only. The unit for energy is the same as those of work
i.e. example joules.
1.7.1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transformed from one to
another form of energy. For instance water stored in a dam possesses
potential energy which changes to kinetic energy as it flows downwards
through a tunnel to turn turbines, which in turn changes to electric energy
which can be used to produce heat energy.
1.7.2 POTENTIAL ENERGY
The potential energy of a body may be defined as the amount of work it can do
when it moves from its actual position to the standard position chosen.
The work done lifting a load of mass M and weight W = Mg
through a height h is Wh. This is known as the potential energy of the load
referred to its original position and its unit in that energy,
i.e. the basic unit is the joule (J).
Potential energy = Wh = Mgh (zero at earth’s surface)
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/13
What is the potential energy of a 10 kg mass?
(a) 100 m above the surface of the earth.
(b) at the bottom of a vertical mine shaft 1000 m deep.
(a) Potential energy = mgh
= 10 x 9.81 x 100 J
= 9.81 KJ.
(b) Potential Energy = -10 x 9.81 x 1000 J
= -9.81 x 104
= -98.1 KJ.
1.7.3 KINETIC ENERGY
A body may possess energy due to its motion as well as due to its position. For
example, when a hammer is used to drive in a nail, work is done on the nail by
the hammer, hence it must have possessed energy. Also a rotating flywheel
possess energy due its motion. These are example of the form of energy
call kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy may be described as energy due to motion. Only linear motion
will be considered. The kinetic energy of a body may be defined as the amount
of work it can do before being brought to rest.
1.7.4 FORMULA FOR KINETICS ENERGY
Let a body of mass m moving with a speed v be brought to rest with a uniform
retardation by constant force P in a distance s.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/14
v2 = u2 + 2 as
0 = v2 - 2 as since a is negative
or s = v
work done = force x distance
However P = ma
Work done = mav2/2a
= ½ mv2
The kinetic energy is thus given by
Kinetic energy = ½ mv2
1.7.5 STRAIN ENERGY
The work done in compressing or stretching a spring is stored as strain energy
in the spring provided that there is no permanent deformation (over stretching).
The stiffness of a spring is the load per unit extension and is approximately
constant within the working range of the spring; thus if S is the stiffness, the
load P required to produce an extension x is given by
Suppose a load is gradually applied to a spring so that it varies from zero to
maximum value P and produce a maximum extension x. Then
Work done = average load x extension
= ½ Sx x x
= ½ Sx2
since strain energy
U = Work done
Thus U= ½Px
= ½ Sx2
The units of strain energy are same as those of work, i.e. joules (J)
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/15
A wagon of mass 12 tone traveling at 16 km/h strikes a pair of parallel
spring-loaded stops. If the stiffness of each spring is 600 KN/m, calculate the
maximum compression in bringing the wagon to rest.
V = 16 km/h =
Kinetic energy of wagon = ½ Mv2
= ½ x 12 x 1000 x
= 118,500 J
This kinetic energy may be assumed to be absorbed equally by the two
springs. Strain energy stored per spring is
½ x 118,500 = 59,250 J
Thus x is the maximum compression of the springs,
½ Sx2 = 59,250
Or ½ x 600 x 1,000 x2 = 59,250
x = 0.446 m = 446 mm
1.8 MOMENTUM AND CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
The momentum of a particle is the product of the mass of the particle and its velocity.
If m is the mass of the particle and v its velocity the momentum is m v. The unit of
momentum is equivalent, i.e. Ns = kg m/s.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/16
1.8.2 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
If two bodies collide then the sum of the momentum before the collision is equal to the
sum of the momentum after collision measured in the same direction.
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
Where m1 = mass of the first body
m2 = mass of the second body
u1 = initial velocity of the first body
u2 = initial velocity of the second body
v1 = final velocity of the first body
v2 = final velocity of the second body
A 750 kg car collided head on with a 1 tone car. If both cars are travel at 16 km/h at
the time of impact and after impact the second car rebounds at 3 km/h, find the
velocity of the first car after collision (assume perfect elastic collision)
By the conservation of momentum and assuming that the first car also rebound.
+ m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
﴾750 x (+16)﴿ + ﴾ 100 x (-16) ) = ﴾ 750 x (-v1) ﴿ + ( 1000 + ( +3) )
12 x 103 – 16 x 103 = -750 v1 + 3 x 103
(12 – 16 – 3) x 103 = -750 v1
-7 x 103 = -750 v1
v1 = 9.333 km/h
Where m1= 750 kg ; m2 = 1 tone = 1000 kg ; u1= + 16 km/h ; u2 = -16 km/h; v2 = + 3km/h
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/17
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
1.8 A flywheel rotating at 1200 rev/min slow down at a constant rate of 900 rev/min in
30 seconds. Find:
a. the initial angular speed
b. the final angular speed
c. the angular acceleration
d. the initial speed of a point on the rim of the flywheel if its diameter is 1.1 m.
1.9 A constant force of 2 kN pulls a crate along a level floor for a distance of 10 m in
50 seconds. What power was used?.
1.10 A car of mass 1000 kg traveling at 30 m/s has its speed reduced to 10 m/s by constant
breaking force over a distance of 75 meter. Find the initial and final kinetic energy and
the breaking force.
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/18
Power = = Fv
Feedback to Activity 1B
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now
1.8 a. 125.7 rad/s
b. 94.2 rad/s
c. -1.05 rad/s2
d. 69.1 m/s
1.9 400 W
1.10 0.5 x 105 J, 5333 N
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/19
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check
your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 1 given on the next page.
If you face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. The spin drier in a washing machine is a cylinder with a diameter of 500 mm. It spins
at 900 rev/min. Find the speed and acceleration of a point on the side of the drum.
2. Find the work done in raising 100 kg of water through a vertical distance of 3 m.
3. A cyclist, with his bicycle, has a total mass 80 kg. He reaches the top of the hill, with a
slope 1 in 2 measured along the slope, at a speed of 2 m/s. He then free-wheels to the
bottom of the hill where his speed has increased to 9 m/s. How much energy has been
lost on the hill which is100 m long?
4. An electric motor is rated at 400 W. If its efficiency is 80%, find the maximum torque
which it can exert when running at 2850 rev/min.
5. The engine of a car has a power output of 42 KW. It can achieve a maximum speed of
120 km/h along the level. Find the resistance to motion. If the power output and
resistance remained the same, what would be the maximum speed a car could achieve
up an incline of 1 in 40 along the slope if the car mass is 900 kg?
GENERAL DYNAMICS J3010/1/20
Feedback to Self-Assessment 1
Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now.
1. 23.6 m/s; 2230 m/s2
2. 2943 J
3. 844 J
May success be with you
4. 1.07 Nm always….
5. 1260 N; 102 km/h