Oil Accounting

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Oil Accounting

  1. 1. Oil Accounting&Gross Refinery Margin<br />Presented By:<br />PrashantGaurav (49)<br />MedhaviMayurPandey (50)<br />Dev Datta (51)<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Oil Accounting<br />In case of Oil Companies inventory accounts for about 30-40% of the total assets of the company. <br />Inventories are defined as assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business or in the process of production for such sale or in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in rendering of services.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Classification of inventories<br />Raw Materials<br />Intermediate Stock or Work–In–Progress;<br />Finished Good Stock <br />3<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />
  5. 5. Accounting for Inventories<br />The objective of accounting for goods in inventories is the matching of appropriate costs against revenues in order that there may be a proper determination of realized income.<br />The cost of inventory is calculated on First–In–First–Out (FIFO) basis, Average cost basis, LIFO basis and Specific Identification basis.<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Valuation Criterion<br />Raw Material : Crude Oil<br />Crude oil is valued at ‘Actual Cost’ or ‘Replacement Cost’ whichever is lower.<br />The term ‘Replacement Cost’ of crude refers to the prevailing price of same type of crude in the market at the time of finalization of annual accounts, in order to determine the change in the cost of crude with respect to the balance sheet date.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. The term ‘Net Realizable Value’ refers to the estimated realization from the sale of products produced from the crude oil in stock as at the valuation date.<br />The Actual Cost comprises the following:<br />In case of indigenous crude oil, the total costs involved in bringing the crude oil to their present location or condition. It shall include all payments made for purchase of crude oil to oil supplying companies, transportation costs if any, cess, ocean freight, insurance, etc. in case of offshore crude oil; and<br />7<br />
  8. 8. In case of imported crude oil, shall include all costs incurred in the course of import of crude oil up to the point of storage or processing which shall comprise FOB, Marine freight, Marine Insurance, Wharfage and other landing charges, Customs Duty, Transportation costs and Entry Tax if applicable.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />
  10. 10. First In First Out Basis<br />ABC Oil Company makes the following purchases:<br />Crude Oil on 2/2/07 for $10<br />Crude Oil on 2/15/07 for $15<br />Crude Oil on 2/25/07 for $20<br />ABC Oil Company sells petroleum products on 2/28/07 for $90. What would be the balance of ending inventory and cost of goods sold for the month ended Feb. 07, assuming the company used the FIFO cost flow assumptions? Assume a Tax rate of 30%.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. “First-In-First-Out (FIFO)”<br />Inventory <br />Balance = $ 45<br />ABC Oil Company<br />Income Statement<br />For the Month of Feb. 2007<br />Sales $ 90<br /> Cost of goods sold 0<br /> Gross profit 90<br /> Expenses:<br /> Administrative 14<br /> Selling 12<br /> Interest 7<br /> Total expenses 33<br /> Income before tax 57<br /> Taxes 17 <br /> Net Income $ 40<br />Purchase on 2/25/07for $20<br />Purchase on 2/15/07 for $15<br />Purchase on 2/2/07 for $10<br />11<br />
  12. 12. ABC OilCompany<br />Income Statement<br />For the Month of Feb. 2007<br /> Sales $ 90<br /> Cost of goods sold 10<br /> Gross profit 80<br /> Expenses:<br /> Administrative 14<br /> Selling 12<br /> Interest 7<br /> Total expenses 33<br /> Income before tax 47<br /> Taxes14 <br /> Net Income $ 33<br />Inventory Balance = $ 35<br />Purchase on 2/25/07 for $20<br />Purchase on 2/15/07 for $15<br />Purchase on 2/2/07 for $10<br />First In First Out Basis<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Valuation Criterion<br />Intermediate Stock<br />The valuation of such goods is done as follows:<br />‘Actual Cost plus Conversion costs’ or ‘Net Realizable Value’ whichever is lower.<br />The actual cost of such stock may, thus, be calculated by arriving at the value of Equivalent Crude used in such stock after considering the proportion of relevant losses. <br />Similarly, the proportion of all relevant conversion costs involved is added to the total cost.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Valuation Criterion<br />Finished Goods<br />In the case of Refining Companies, the Refinery Transfer Price (RTP) is determined under the concept of Import Parity Price (IPP). Such a price is based on the landed cost of the product at the nearest refinery port (plus transportation cost, if any) for the import of such product. This adjusted price is referred to as ‘Ex-Refinery Price’ and is inclusive of refining margin.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Gross Refinery Margin<br />GRM is the difference between crude oil price and total value of petroleum products produced by the refinery.<br />Suppose a refinery has purchased crude at $ 140 per barrel and have realized $ 155 barrel on sale of petrol, diesel, ATF, Kerosene, LPG and Naphtha etc., hence, in this case GRM is at $ 15 per barrel.<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Factors Affecting GRM<br />Cost of sourcing crude oil<br />Demand – Supply mismatch of the products<br />The duty structure for crude & petroleum products <br />Crude Mix(API & Sulfur) processed in the refinery<br />Refinery Complexity i.e. Nelson Complexity <br />Fuel & Losses incurred in the production process<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />
  18. 18. Global Refining Margins<br />High refining margins in the last 3 years due to<br />Tight Balance of refining capacity & demand for refined products<br />High demand for light & middle distillates <br />Limited availability of complex refining capacity<br />18<br />
  19. 19. $ per bbl<br />$ per bbl<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Indian Refining Margins<br />Strong profitability of Indian refining companies is driven by<br />Strong export<br />Import Parity Pricing of domestic sales<br />Higher Nelson Complexity Index<br />Better Product Mix<br />GRM’s expected to stay robust with high crude prices and global demand-supply forecasts. <br />20<br />
  21. 21. India – Refining Capacity<br />India will have surplus refining capacity with export potential of ≈40 mmtpa in 2007 and going up to ≈100 mmtpa in 2012<br />Optimal timing of capacities to capture the prevailing high GRMs <br />21<br />
  22. 22. Factors affecting GRM in future<br />Slowdown in global economic growth from 5.3% in 2006 to 4.2% (2007 -2015)<br />Gas Substitution in developing economies<br />Reduction in light-heavy crude differential<br />Moderation in crude prices<br />Additional capacities coming on stream that have flexibility to process heavy/sour crude<br />Nature of new oil discoveries in the future<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Thank You<br />23<br />

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