International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies

                         Geo-Tagging in Archaeology:
      ...
Overview




         Images and their Location in Archaeology
         Mobile Geotagging
         Archaeological Document...
Visual Information -> Photographs

         Textual information (e.g.
         Pausanias) often reflects the
         ideo...
Photographs + Location




katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at   4   Vienna, 16.11.2009
Geocoded digital images include




         latitude and longitude
         altitude
         metadata, e.g., accuracy da...
GPS as basis technology




                                                                              Nyquist & Czech
...
Social Software: Blogs versus Wikis


        Blog                                            Wiki
        Only the author...
Related Work (Example)




         GeoWiki is an established term
         These are geographically contextualized wikis
...
GeoWikis have limitations …




         Other GeoWikis implementations are focused on
         the geographical aspect on...
Requirements


         1) Geotagging Interface
               Possibility of correcting errors manually
         2) Mobil...
The TUGeoWiki: Desktop Scenario & Mobile Scenario




                         Mobile Domain                          Serv...
katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at   12   Vienna, 16.11.2009
What equipment did we use?



         HOLUX M-241 (39 g device)
         Wireless logger shows position, speed, date time...
Camera with Inbuilt-GPS and compass




                               3GS




  Introduction         Background     Mater...
The classic discrepancy according to Norman (1986)
  COMPUTERS                                                            ...
How to build systems for Archaeologists?


                                          Optimal
                             ...
Methods




                                       cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (2005)
...
Methods used




                                        cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (...
Guiding principle




         ISO 9241
         Extent to which a product can be used by
         specified users to achi...
Use Case 1: Report from Roman Stone Documentation




  Introduction         Background     Materials        Methods   Dis...
Use Case 1: Problems




  Introduction         Background     Materials        Methods   Discussion      Conclusion
katha...
Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona




  Introduction         Background     Materials        Methods   Discussion      Con...
Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona




  Introduction         Background     Methods        Materials   Discussion      Con...
Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey)




  Introduction         Background     Materials        Methods   Discussion      Conclusio...
Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey)




  Introduction         Background     Materials        Methods   Discussion      Conclusio...
Conclusions (Pros)




         KILL THREE BIRDS WITH ONE STONE – combine
         visual, textual and geographical inform...
Conclusions (Cons)




         relative inaccuracy of the GPS location data;
         deviation between the distance of t...
Everything begins with small steps …




katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at   28    Vienna, 16.11.2009
International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies



                                      Thank you!
        ...
Glossary


         API= Application Programming Interface is an interface that a
         software program implements in ...
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Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki

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Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki

  1. 1. International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki Katharina Holzinger, Christian Safran, Martin Ebner, Frank Kappe, Gabriele Koiner, Andreas Holzinger Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media, TU Graz in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology, Graz University Monday 16 November, 2009, 13:30-17:00 – Workshop 4 Venue: Rathaus Wien, Room 319 http://www.stadtarchaeologie.at Chairs: Michael DONEUS, Austria & Samuel PALEY, USA katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 1 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  2. 2. Overview Images and their Location in Archaeology Mobile Geotagging Archaeological Documentation in the TUGeoWiki Use Case 1: Roman Stones (Graz) Use Case 2: Vindobona (Vienna) Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Problems and Solutions katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 2 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  3. 3. Visual Information -> Photographs Textual information (e.g. Pausanias) often reflects the ideological, educational or mental background of the author Visual information helps identifying an object better than by reading a text -> Visual information (drawings, photographs, or the object itself!) is essential for Archaeologists (Alexandridis & Heilmeyer, 2004) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 3 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  4. 4. Photographs + Location katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 4 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  5. 5. Geocoded digital images include latitude and longitude altitude metadata, e.g., accuracy data, and place names, find spots and further notes Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 5 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  6. 6. GPS as basis technology Nyquist & Czech 24 satellites circle in 12-hour in evenly distributed orbits at an altitude of 17,000 km Each satellite carries a computer and a very accurate atomic clock Handheld GPS units operate by picking up the continuously signals from at least 4 satellites GPS is controlled by the US Department of Defense Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 6 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  7. 7. Social Software: Blogs versus Wikis Blog Wiki Only the author can edit Wikis allow many the blog (others post just contributors to add or edit comments) content Posts are permanent and No specific organization: the person owns it hyperlinks Specific organization, e.g. It is always work in reverse chronological progress Beneficial for information Beneficial for supporting sharing, starting a collaborative work discussion, etc. Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 7 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  8. 8. Related Work (Example) GeoWiki is an established term These are geographically contextualized wikis e.g. Priedhorsky & Terveen, 2008, cyclopath for cyclists documenting cyclepaths Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 8 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  9. 9. GeoWikis have limitations … Other GeoWikis implementations are focused on the geographical aspect only, e.g. editable maps the TUGeoWiki focuses on the documentation of the individual locations and the connections between them, supports collaborative work The design of the TUGeoWiki as a server-side and client-side application was based on four central requirements Introduction Background Methods Materials Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 9 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  10. 10. Requirements 1) Geotagging Interface Possibility of correcting errors manually 2) Mobile AND Desktop Interface System must also be useful and useable during field studies, i.e. create and edit information on the spot 3) Collaborative Environment Educational benefit from WIKI principle 4) Map Mash-up Integration of location-based material using a API to Google Maps Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 10 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  11. 11. The TUGeoWiki: Desktop Scenario & Mobile Scenario Mobile Domain Server Domain Mobile Browser GPS Unit ... Webserver J2ME Application Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 11 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  12. 12. katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 12 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  13. 13. What equipment did we use? HOLUX M-241 (39 g device) Wireless logger shows position, speed, date time 130.000 positions can be stored including longitude, latitude, time, and altitude Camera (EXIF format jpg files and internal clock) Software to synchronize gps track with timestamp of photo Software to create google earth file (.kml) – or put it directly into the TUGeoWiki Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 13 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  14. 14. Camera with Inbuilt-GPS and compass 3GS Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 14 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  15. 15. The classic discrepancy according to Norman (1986) COMPUTERS ARCHAEOLOGY Design User Model Model System Information- Presentation Model Norman,(1986), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 15 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  16. 16. How to build systems for Archaeologists? Optimal User Experience Understanding Domain and Context Understanding Archaeologists e.g. Shackel (1991), Vredenburg (1999), Thimbleby (2007) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 16 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  17. 17. Methods cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 17 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  18. 18. Methods used cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 18 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  19. 19. Guiding principle ISO 9241 Extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 19 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  20. 20. Use Case 1: Report from Roman Stone Documentation Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 20 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  21. 21. Use Case 1: Problems Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 21 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  22. 22. Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 22 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  23. 23. Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona Introduction Background Methods Materials Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 23 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  24. 24. Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 24 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  25. 25. Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 25 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  26. 26. Conclusions (Pros) KILL THREE BIRDS WITH ONE STONE – combine visual, textual and geographical information immediate exchange of information and the ability to cooperate with other archaeologists etc. Future possibilities of geotagging are manifold, e.g. a navigation system which reconstructs antique routes (roman roads) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 26 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  27. 27. Conclusions (Cons) relative inaccuracy of the GPS location data; deviation between the distance of the camera and the object; Battery lifetime (keep reserve batteries at hand) data protection; archaeologists are extremely worried about tomb raiders gaining access to sensitive archaeological information; Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 27 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  28. 28. Everything begins with small steps … katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 28 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  29. 29. International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies Thank you! Contact: katharina.holzinger@edu-uni.graz.at katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 29 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  30. 30. Glossary API= Application Programming Interface is an interface that a software program implements in order to allow other software to interact with it Geotagging = is the process of adding geographical metadata to various media such as photographs, videos, websites, etc. GPS = Global Positioning System provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users Heuristic = is a experience based technique by application of "rules of thumb" or principles Mash-Up = is an application that combines external applications in order to create a new service by using an API Wiki = A wiki is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked Web pages. katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 30 Vienna, 16.11.2009

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