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Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki

Presentation at International Congress “Cultural Heritage and New Technologies” (Workshop “Archäologie & Computer”)”

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International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies

                         Geo-Tagging in Archaeology:
                  Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki
                                  Katharina Holzinger, Christian Safran,
                       Martin Ebner, Frank Kappe, Gabriele Koiner, Andreas Holzinger

                            Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media, TU Graz
                            in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology, Graz University

                      Monday 16 November, 2009, 13:30-17:00 – Workshop 4
                                           Venue: Rathaus Wien, Room 319
                                           http://www.stadtarchaeologie.at

                            Chairs: Michael DONEUS, Austria & Samuel PALEY, USA




katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at                        1                                    Vienna, 16.11.2009
Overview




         Images and their Location in Archaeology
         Mobile Geotagging
         Archaeological Documentation in the TUGeoWiki
         Use Case 1: Roman Stones (Graz)
         Use Case 2: Vindobona (Vienna)
         Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey)
         Problems and Solutions

katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at   2          Vienna, 16.11.2009
Visual Information -> Photographs

         Textual information (e.g.
         Pausanias) often reflects the
         ideological, educational or
         mental background of the
         author
         Visual information helps
         identifying an object better
         than by reading a text
         -> Visual information
         (drawings, photographs, or the
         object itself!) is essential for
         Archaeologists


        (Alexandridis & Heilmeyer, 2004)

  Introduction         Background          Materials       Methods   Discussion      Conclusion
katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at                    3                          Vienna, 16.11.2009
Photographs + Location




katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at   4   Vienna, 16.11.2009
Geocoded digital images include




         latitude and longitude
         altitude
         metadata, e.g., accuracy data, and
         place names, find spots and further
         notes




  Introduction         Background     Materials       Methods   Discussion      Conclusion
katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at               5                          Vienna, 16.11.2009
GPS as basis technology




                                                                              Nyquist & Czech


         24 satellites circle in 12-hour in evenly distributed orbits at
         an altitude of 17,000 km
         Each satellite carries a computer and a very accurate
         atomic clock
         Handheld GPS units operate by picking up the continuously
         signals from at least 4 satellites
         GPS is controlled by the US Department of Defense

  Introduction         Background     Materials       Methods   Discussion      Conclusion
katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at               6                          Vienna, 16.11.2009

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Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki

  • 1. International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies Geo-Tagging in Archaeology: Practical Experiences with the TUGeoWiki Katharina Holzinger, Christian Safran, Martin Ebner, Frank Kappe, Gabriele Koiner, Andreas Holzinger Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media, TU Graz in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology, Graz University Monday 16 November, 2009, 13:30-17:00 – Workshop 4 Venue: Rathaus Wien, Room 319 http://www.stadtarchaeologie.at Chairs: Michael DONEUS, Austria & Samuel PALEY, USA katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 1 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 2. Overview Images and their Location in Archaeology Mobile Geotagging Archaeological Documentation in the TUGeoWiki Use Case 1: Roman Stones (Graz) Use Case 2: Vindobona (Vienna) Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Problems and Solutions katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 2 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 3. Visual Information -> Photographs Textual information (e.g. Pausanias) often reflects the ideological, educational or mental background of the author Visual information helps identifying an object better than by reading a text -> Visual information (drawings, photographs, or the object itself!) is essential for Archaeologists (Alexandridis & Heilmeyer, 2004) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 3 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 5. Geocoded digital images include latitude and longitude altitude metadata, e.g., accuracy data, and place names, find spots and further notes Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 5 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 6. GPS as basis technology Nyquist & Czech 24 satellites circle in 12-hour in evenly distributed orbits at an altitude of 17,000 km Each satellite carries a computer and a very accurate atomic clock Handheld GPS units operate by picking up the continuously signals from at least 4 satellites GPS is controlled by the US Department of Defense Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 6 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 7. Social Software: Blogs versus Wikis Blog Wiki Only the author can edit Wikis allow many the blog (others post just contributors to add or edit comments) content Posts are permanent and No specific organization: the person owns it hyperlinks Specific organization, e.g. It is always work in reverse chronological progress Beneficial for information Beneficial for supporting sharing, starting a collaborative work discussion, etc. Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 7 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 8. Related Work (Example) GeoWiki is an established term These are geographically contextualized wikis e.g. Priedhorsky & Terveen, 2008, cyclopath for cyclists documenting cyclepaths Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 8 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 9. GeoWikis have limitations … Other GeoWikis implementations are focused on the geographical aspect only, e.g. editable maps the TUGeoWiki focuses on the documentation of the individual locations and the connections between them, supports collaborative work The design of the TUGeoWiki as a server-side and client-side application was based on four central requirements Introduction Background Methods Materials Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 9 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 10. Requirements 1) Geotagging Interface Possibility of correcting errors manually 2) Mobile AND Desktop Interface System must also be useful and useable during field studies, i.e. create and edit information on the spot 3) Collaborative Environment Educational benefit from WIKI principle 4) Map Mash-up Integration of location-based material using a API to Google Maps Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 10 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 11. The TUGeoWiki: Desktop Scenario & Mobile Scenario Mobile Domain Server Domain Mobile Browser GPS Unit ... Webserver J2ME Application Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 11 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 12. katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 12 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 13. What equipment did we use? HOLUX M-241 (39 g device) Wireless logger shows position, speed, date time 130.000 positions can be stored including longitude, latitude, time, and altitude Camera (EXIF format jpg files and internal clock) Software to synchronize gps track with timestamp of photo Software to create google earth file (.kml) – or put it directly into the TUGeoWiki Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 13 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 14. Camera with Inbuilt-GPS and compass 3GS Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 14 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 15. The classic discrepancy according to Norman (1986) COMPUTERS ARCHAEOLOGY Design User Model Model System Information- Presentation Model Norman,(1986), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 15 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 16. How to build systems for Archaeologists? Optimal User Experience Understanding Domain and Context Understanding Archaeologists e.g. Shackel (1991), Vredenburg (1999), Thimbleby (2007) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 16 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 17. Methods cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 17 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 18. Methods used cf. Nielsen (1994), Andrews (2002), Holzinger (2003), Holzinger (2005) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 18 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 19. Guiding principle ISO 9241 Extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 19 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 20. Use Case 1: Report from Roman Stone Documentation Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 20 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 21. Use Case 1: Problems Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 21 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 22. Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 22 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 23. Use Case 2: Report from Vindobona Introduction Background Methods Materials Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 23 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 24. Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 24 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 25. Use Case 3: Tavium (Turkey) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 25 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 26. Conclusions (Pros) KILL THREE BIRDS WITH ONE STONE – combine visual, textual and geographical information immediate exchange of information and the ability to cooperate with other archaeologists etc. Future possibilities of geotagging are manifold, e.g. a navigation system which reconstructs antique routes (roman roads) Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 26 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 27. Conclusions (Cons) relative inaccuracy of the GPS location data; deviation between the distance of the camera and the object; Battery lifetime (keep reserve batteries at hand) data protection; archaeologists are extremely worried about tomb raiders gaining access to sensitive archaeological information; Introduction Background Materials Methods Discussion Conclusion katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 27 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 28. Everything begins with small steps … katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 28 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 29. International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies Thank you! Contact: katharina.holzinger@edu-uni.graz.at katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 29 Vienna, 16.11.2009
  • 30. Glossary API= Application Programming Interface is an interface that a software program implements in order to allow other software to interact with it Geotagging = is the process of adding geographical metadata to various media such as photographs, videos, websites, etc. GPS = Global Positioning System provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users Heuristic = is a experience based technique by application of "rules of thumb" or principles Mash-Up = is an application that combines external applications in order to create a new service by using an API Wiki = A wiki is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked Web pages. katharina.holzinger@edu.uni-graz.at 30 Vienna, 16.11.2009