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Ict in~1

  1. 1. ISBN 92-9223-015-8 © UNESCO 2004 Published by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education 920 Sukhumvit Rd., Prakanong Bangkok 10110, Thailand Printed in Thailand The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.
  2. 2. Korea PhilippinesMalaysia and Indonesia Philippin Korea South KoreaPhili siaSingapore Malaysia Philippines aKoreaIndonesia Indon landPhilippinesSingapore Integrating ICT Ma ysiaSingapore Philippine Thailand S land South Korea Indonesia Singapo Thailand Indonesia T into Education sia Korea Malaysia Singapore Indo nd Philippines ngapore Philippines South Korea Malay South A Collective Case Study of Six reIndonesia iland Indonesia Malaysia Asian Countries Sing nes ThailandSouth Korea aysia Singap SingaporePhili Philippines South Ko Indonesia • Malaysia • Philippines • sia Indonesia Philippin Singapore • South Korea • Thailand Thailand apore Thailand South K es Malaysia gapore hailand Indonesia T outh KoreaSouth Malaysi a ThailandKorea Indone
  3. 3. Contents Integrating ICT into Education 1 y Kh Preface 5 Mi Executive Summary 9 hp Abbreviations 20 ne S 1 Broader Environmental Context 21 a 2 Policy and Regulatory Environment 37 s 3 Management and Financing 57 ae 4 ICT in Schools – Policy, Vision and Strategy 73 S e 5 Technology Infrastructure and Connectivity 85 e u 6 Curriculum, Pedagogy and Content Development 101 P 117 S 7 8 Professional Development Monitoring and Evaluation 133 o SERIES 2004 3
  4. 4. Preface Preface This package entitled "Integrating ICTs into Education: Lessons Learned" arose from the rapidly growing body of experiences, and innovative strategies and approaches from countries in Asia and the Pacific. Although the region has recently embarked on this new field of largely untested grounds, since many countries have leap frogged into the opportunities that ICTs can offer, showing exciting results, this wealth of experiences certainly deserves attention. Numerous case studies have already been written on the use of ICTs for education in Asia and the Pacific, but distilling these experiences, and culling out lessons learned, and innovative strategies and practices has not yet been conducted. This becomes all the more needed when one thinks of the potential waste of funds and investment (setting up ICT infrastructure and facilities), if we are to avoid re-making mistakes and losing good opportunities. Moreover, a synthesis becomes all the more important when one thinks of the little time that policy-makers and managers have to plough through all the available information, much of which could be repetitious or with inconsistent content, not to mention outdated data. This activity is part and parcel of the Strengthening ICT in Schools and SchoolNet Project in ASEAN Setting funded by the Japanese Funds-in-Trust and the ASEAN Foundation. The Project is an attempt to demonstrate that the use of ICT in education will make a difference in improving the teaching/learning process through the systematic integration of the use of ICT into existing educational curricula on science, mathematics and language. In order to attain this goal, the following supporting strategies are implemented: a) documenting of successful SERIES 2004 5
  5. 5. Integrating ICTs into Education experiences and innovative strategies in the use of ICT in schools from the more advanced countries to serve as benchmarks and guidance for programme planning and implementation; b) policy and strategy development, specifically dealing with integration/mainstreaming of ICT into national education curriculum; c) development of integrated ICT-based curriculum, teaching and learning materials and applications for teaching science, mathematics and language; d) establishing connectivity and pilot testing the use of ICT in 24 schools in eight ASEAN countries based on the previous activities; e) training of teachers in computer literacy, the use of the ICT-based teaching/learning materials in science, mathematics and language, telecollaboration and use of SchoolNets; f) establishment and use of national SchoolNet to promote sharing of information and resources; g) the creation of national and ASEAN SchoolNets and telecollaboration among pilot schools in eight ASEAN countries; and finally, h) sharing of best practices. The first activity of the project was documenting the experiences of selected countries in the South East Asian countries on the use of technology in education in order to learn from their successes, as well as avoid the pitfalls and failures that have occurred in these initiatives. Such tested techniques and strategies could be adopted to promote the use of ICT in schools in a most integrated way, contributing towards improvements in educational quality and learning. The documentation of experiences was undertaken through country case studies written by ICT specialists who are directly involved in the implementation of the ICT for education programmes in their respective countries in order to: 1 Document, synthesize and extract lessons learned in the use of ICT in schools and the setting up / impact of SchoolNets in selected countries in order to help improve planning, management and implementation of ICT for education programmes; 6 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  6. 6. Preface 2 Provide tools for advocacy as well as guidelines for policy-makers and practitioners to support ICT in education initiatives; and 3 Serve as benchmarks for implementing the project activities of the JFIT-funded Strengthening ICT in Schools and SchoolNet Project in ASEAN Setting, specifically the integration of ICT into national curricula of ASEAN countries, the development of Startup toolkit and operation of SchoolNets These six case studies are from the following countries and experts: 1 Indonesia – Harina Yuhetty, Director, PUSTEKKOM, Jakarta, Indonesia 2 Malaysia – Chan Foong Mae, Principal Assistant Director, Communication and Training Sector, Educational Technology Division, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 3 Philippines – Victoria L.Tinio, Director of E-Learning, Foundation for Information Technology Education and Development Inc., Manila, Philippines 4 Singapore – Lim Cher Ping, Assistant Professor, National Institute of Education, Singapore 5 South Korea – Okhwa Lee, Chungbuk National University, Seoul, South Korea 6 Thailand – Pornpun Waitayangkoon, Assistant to the President, The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, Bangkok, Thailand The case studies are very robust and provide a mine of information which can be overwhelming to the readers, especially the policy-makers who may not have the time to go over them. SERIES 2004 7
  7. 7. Integrating ICTs into Education Thus a synthesis was necessary to highlight lessons learned for the benefit of the following audiences: 1 Policy-makers with responsibility for education and ICT issues, especially but not limited to those within the ministries of education 2 School-level practitioners especially at the secondary level, (administrators, teachers, technical support staff), and those involved in the pilot ASEAN SchoolNet project The synthesis of these case studies was prepared by Dr. Lim Cher Ping, an assistant professor at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University. He is the chief investigator of two funded research projects: (1) Effective Integration of ICT in Singapore Schools: Pedagogical and Policy Implications (MOE/Singapore), and (2) Supporting E-discussions with New Technologies in Learning Communities (M1/Singapore). He has published widely and internationally in different areas of education technologies, namely online learning and other ICT-based learning environments in schools and corporations. Carmelita Villanueva, Chief of Information Programmes and Services at UNESCO Bangkok and Tinsiri Siribodhi, ICT Specialist, have also extensively contributed to editing the manuscript. 8 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  8. 8. Executive Summary Executive Summary R apid global technological and economic developments have placed greater demands on education systems. The need to inculcate In these six countries, ICT use in education is at different stages of development. In its review of 90 ICT projects in Asia, the UNESCO (2003) among students the importance of lifelong comprehensive report groups the countries into learning, that is, to constantly seek new information, three categories: to think critically and to take initiative has become ever more pressing in our 1. Advanced countries with integrated ICT in the fast-changing world. Countries in Asia and the education system. These include Australia, Pacific have responded to these challenges in South Korea and Singapore. Some typical different forms and at varying levels so as to characteristics of these countries are as enable their people to adapt to change, inspire follows: almost all classrooms are equipped creativity and innovation, and enhance their with computers and other ICT tools; the ability to apply knowledge and solve emerging student/computer ratio is high; Internet access problems with confidence. is available in all schools; curriculum revision Policies and strategies have been developed ensures nationwide ICT integration; delivery to integrate ICTs into education. of education is increasingly online. 2. Countries where national ICT policies and While ICT use in education in Asia and the master plans have been formulated and various Pacific is relatively recent, it has nevertheless ICT integration strategies are being applied made an impact on education systems. A wealth and tested (although ICT is not fully integrated of experiences, good practices and lessons have been in the education system). These include China, generated for the benefit of countries where ICT Thailand, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and use in education has just begun as well as those India. While there is great variation in their countries where ICT application and integration characteristics, there are nevertheless some in education are well established. This collective common features as follows: national ICT case study aims to: policies in education have been developed, and the goals and objectives for introducing ICT i. describe lessons learned in integrating ICT in in various aspects of education have been education programmes, based on the established. experiences of six Asian countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, 3. Some countries where efforts towards ICT South Korea and Thailand; and integration efforts and formulation of national policies have just begun. There are also ii. synthesize and analyze ICT integration countries that have no relevant policies but are experiences in connection with specific lessons running pilot ICT projects. In both instances, learned and highlight best practices and the however, there is insufficient budget to need for further improvements. implement policies and work plans and ICT infrastructure and penetration are poor. This SERIES 2004 9
  9. 9. Integrating ICTs into Education third category includes Myanmar, Lao PDR, I. Broader Environmental Viet Nam, Cambodia, and Bangladesh, among Context others. 1. Education System Responsiveness Because of the different levels of ICT integration in the six countries, alongside many similarities A well-planned and responsive education in their experiences of ICT integration, there is system provides an appropriate enabling a variety of approaches that should be explored environment for the successful and examined. An analysis of experiences implementation of ICT in education policy and best practices and associated problems and programme has generated lessons learned in the following eight components of ICT integration in education: To make ICT an integral part of the (i) broader environmental context, (ii) policy and education master plan and ensure regulatory environment, (iii) management and programme support, the ICT in education financing, (iv) ICT in schools – policy, vision policy should share the same vision as and strategy, (v) technology infrastructure and other educational policies or initiatives connectivity, (vi) curriculum, pedagogy and content development, (vii) professional 2. ICT in Education Policy and ICT development, and (viii) monitoring and Infrastructure Support evaluation. An ICT in education policy that is driven These components provide the key foundation by a vision which can be translated into and framework in setting up ICT for education action targeted at realistic and manageable programmes. A synthesis of lessons learned from goals contributes to successful programme selected countries in the region provides the basis implementation for the development of tools and blueprints to guide policy formulation and programme A holistic approach to ICT in education improvements. It also serves as an advocacy policy goes beyond a technological instrument to gain the support of policy-makers dimension and other stakeholders for the appropriate use of resources to support the integration of ICT in Adequate physical and technological education. infrastructures are necessary conditions for effective ICT integration The following summary provides an overview of lessons learned. 3. Economic and Social/Cultural Context A well-developed ICT infrastructure in the economic sector facilitates successful implementation of ICT in education policy 10 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  10. 10. Executive Summary ICT in education policy is one of several process is manageable and the key economic strategies to ensure sustained development of best practices and lessons economic development of any country learned is gradual. It also provides opportunities for evaluations so that the policy can be revised and fine-tuned Central support from the MOE to pursue II. Policy and Regulatory a clear and measurable vision helps in Environment developing and implementing a comprehensive programme for the capacity 1. Policy Development building of schools in using ICT in education To ensure that ICT in education policy is integrated in the national ICT policy, 3. Legal and Regulatory Framework Ministries of Education (MOE) should work closely with other government Initial filtering of the Internet from organizations, especially those in charge undesirable websites is necessary in order of implementing national policies on ICT to prevent their harmful influence on and telecommunications younger students who may not be able to discern the veracity and reliability of Lessons learned from pilot projects and information studies in education that are carried out at different levels of the school system More than any software or hardware provide the basis for further policy device, better protection is ensured by expansion making education on safety issues pertaining to the Internet an integral part Harmonized implementation of ICT in of parenting as well as of teaching and education programmes can be achieved by learning activities at home and in the defining clearly the roles and school responsibilities of all departments (within the MOE and other relevant ministerial 4. Macro-Economic Impact departments) in the implementation of ICT master plans, showing clearly the different To narrow the digital divide, ICT in components of project activities, including education policy should complement other budget allocations, manpower government initiatives, such as public requirements and timetables. education on ICT, donation of computers and provision of free Internet access 2. Transforming Policy into Action Phased implementation of ICT in education policy ensures that the implementation SERIES 2004 11
  11. 11. Integrating ICTs into Education 5. Inter-Ministerial Collaboration heads of departments, their sense of ownership and involvement is enhanced Sharing expertise, experiences and infrastructures among ministries and government agencies helps to coordinate and harmonise implementation of ICT in education programmes III. Management and Financing Creating a national policymaking, regulatory and implementing agency for 1.Leadership and Management ICT development systematizes inter- ministerial cooperation on ICT in general, Having a champion at all levels in the including education education system promotes ICT acceptance Beyond ministries and government Including ‘ICT in Education’ as an agencies, inter-ministerial collaborations important component in the development could involve private sector participation programme for administrators supports the introduction of innovative use of ICT in 6. Advocacy and Support from schools Policymakers and Other Stakeholders 2. Harmonizing ICT in Education Programmes with Other ICT and/ By linking the objectives of ICT in or Education Initiatives/Projects education policy with national education objectives, support from policymakers and To avoid duplication of work and dilution other MOE stakeholders, including human of funds, there should be coordination of capacity building, could be more ICT in education projects and sharing of forthcoming information on ICT By making policymakers and stakeholders 3. Dichotomy between Educators regularly aware of and updated on the and Technologists benefits of ICT to education, based on research results and documentation of To ensure that ICT in education projects experiences, advocacy for the acceptance are not just technology-driven, they should of ICT use in education is further be managed by a team composed of strengthened educators and technologists By making all decisions taken or amended by the MOE’s highest steering committee known to all members of the committee and 12 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  12. 12. Executive Summary 4. Resources at Ministerial and IV. ICT in Schools – Policy, School Levels Vision and Strategy To ensure the site readiness of all schools, 1. ICT in Schools: Vision and Plan there must be adequate, initial financial investment by the government at the A clear vision of ICT integration in schools national level, especially on basic ICT that is shared by all members of the school infrastructure and resources community promotes effective use of ICT in the classroom Every school is different and each one should be given some autonomy to select An ICT master plan that is formulated ICT resources that are most suitable to the according to a school’s vision and its socio- needs of teachers and students cultural setting assures effective integration of ICT Investments in ICT infrastructure and resources in schools create an environment 2. Supporting Policies to Facilitate that is conducive to learning Uptake of ICT The MOE should be encouraged to To promote ICT uptake in schools, school establish a standard budget based on leaders should initially adopt strategies school size and existing resources rather that make ICT part of the daily routine or than to apply one formula for all schools tasks of the teachers 5. Resources from Donors and the To promote use of ICT in schools, the MOE Private Sector should set guidelines for schools on the integration of ICT in the curriculum, Financial and resource support for the without necessarily imposing these as rules implementation of ICT in education policy or regulations to be strictly adhered to is mobilized if school-industry partnership is an integral part of such policy. In ICT use in schools is more likely to be addition, schools are able to explore and facilitated if school leaders employ experience emerging technologies and strategies that provide teachers with a pedagogies. platform and support for the integration of ICT in the school curriculum 6. Strategies to Ensure Sustainability Appointing an ICT coordinator or head of ICT department in each school helps to Preparing and disseminating guidelines on ensure administrative and pedagogical how to source funds empower schools to support for the teachers look for their own funds and to identify expertise to promote sustainability SERIES 2004 13
  13. 13. Integrating ICTs into Education 3. Management of ICT Resources V. Technology Infrastructure and Connectivity Carrying out a SWOT analysis and applying its findings help to optimise use 1. Mobilizing Support from of ICT resources Telecommunications and ICT Organisations and Industries 4. Translation of Laws into Acceptable School-Level Tapping local telephone companies and Regulations ICT industries for support promotes affordable Internet connectivity and Translating ICT in education policy and computer hardware and software laws into a set of school-level regulations and procedures provides a clearer 2. Choice and Mode of Deployment blueprint for schools on the use of ICT of Technologies 5. Parents and Community When deploying technologies to schools Involvement throughout the country, establishing a balance between equity and effectiveness ICT bridges and strengthens the home- is necessary school connection and, if properly harnessed, promotes parents’ activities and Deploying ICT in different types of pilot involvement in the school schools or demonstration schools will generate lessons on how to increase ICT When parents are encouraged to use at different school levels and cull best participate in and contribute to change practices management activities within a school’s ICT master plan, change occurs more 3. Connectivity Options/Alternatives quickly Use of satellite and Internet schemes has As ICT opens opportunities to collaborate enabled some countries to reach with different organizations and people in marginalised areas or economically local and international communities, disadvantaged groups schools should establish linkages with different communities to help in developing Working closely with Internet Service the overall character of students Providers (ISPs) helps in determining appropriate bandwidth connection in schools and homes 14 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  14. 14. Executive Summary 4. Infrastructure to Support and in other schools or some government and Deliver Teaching and Learning charity organizations. There is no perfect combination of online 7. Open Source Software and offline resources to promote effective teaching and learning Although open source software (Linux-SIS, locally-developed word processor and Digital libraries for schools may be digital toolkit for developing web content) introduced as infrastructure to support and is encouraged in the schools, there are deliver teaching and learning limitations that must be taken into account before schools decide to use open source 5. Emerging Technologies: Dealing software with Rapid Development of Technologies 8. Guidelines on Information Security ICT pilot projects should not take more than three years to complete since the Preparing and disseminating guidelines on obsolescence rate of present-day ICT security help in dealing with technologies is increasing information security problems in schools Mobile computing offers schools many 9. Integrating School Management opportunities that include overcoming Software with Learning constraints of space and giving flexibility Management System (LMS) in anytime-anywhere utilization of ICT in schools Maintaining the inter-operability of a common school management system while Leasing equipment from private companies ensuring that decoupling is built into the can be one solution to the problem of system is a need expressed by most rapidly increasing obsolescence rate of countries present-day technologies There should be adequate in-house training 6. Donation of Computers to help school staff and students in using LMS and in coping with the transition from Vocational colleges can be tapped to manual to automated processes provide maintenance service for computers donated to schools Donated computers that have exceeded their lifespan may be redeployed for other uses or may be offered to needy students SERIES 2004 15
  15. 15. Integrating ICTs into Education VI. Curriculum, Pedagogy 3. Contents and Services that and Content Development Support Continuous Improvement of Curriculum Practices 1. Integrating Technology in the Curriculum and Assessment Attracting well-established foreign education software developers to work with When teachers perceive ICT as a tool to local companies helps to develop high meet curricular goals, they are more likely quality ICT-based resources to integrate ICT in their lessons Establishing a clearing house or digital Equipping students with ICT skills libraries of ready-to-use and customizable facilitates the effective integration of ICT ICT-based resources promotes better use in schools of ICT in teaching and facilitates quick and easy access to resources for making lesson Teachers play a pivotal role in the plans and for teaching integration of ICT in the school curriculum and assessment 4. Development and Selection of Culturally Sensitive Content When ICT is introduced into the assessment process, there is a need to reconsider the Having a mechanism in place for assessment approaches evaluating content developed for schools ensures political and cultural validity, 2. Shift in Pedagogy as a Result of reliability and correctness Integrating ICT in the Curriculum 5. Ethical and Political Implications Shifting pedagogical approaches to the use of English as Lingua Franca of ICT in education is time-consuming While local content in the local language Shifting pedagogies, redesigning the promotes better use of ICT-based resources curriculum and assessment, and providing and materials, the use of English in schools more autonomy to the schools help to optimizes the potential of ICT (especially optimize the use of ICT the Internet) for teaching and learning Shifting pedagogical approaches is 6. Intellectual Property Rights facilitated through appropriate Related to Educational Software professional development of teachers A cost-benefit analysis conducted before deciding on whether to acquire the intellectual property rights to educational materials, or to acquire a perpetual license 16 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  16. 16. Executive Summary to use the materials, prevents waste of teachers’ experience and makes them resources comfortable with online learning Needs-based just-in-time learning and peer coaching ensure further development of teachers’ ICT and pedagogical skills VII. Professional Development 3. Teachers’ Competencies and Standards 1. Policy and Management of Teacher Training on ICT ICT competency standards serve as a benchmark for formulating and evaluating To ensure continuous training of teachers teacher training programmes and use of from pre-service teacher education to ICT in teaching induction to in-service professional development, training agencies should be Customizing national-level ICT mobilized and labour divided among them, competency standards for each school, with the MOE providing central depending on its socio-cultural context, coordination ensure ICT integration and acceptance Professional development is more likely to 4. How to Change Mindset of succeed if continuous training of teachers Teachers is a built-in process and is offered as a benefit to them A buddy system approach where novice teachers work together with expert A centralized training administration teachers in a classroom using ICT system for all teaching and non-teaching contributes towards changing prevailing staff is crucial to document and monitor mindsets professional development 5. Content Focus of Capacity 2. Teacher Training Modalities Building for Teachers Peer and school-based training of teachers Training teachers on ICT-related skills by their more experienced peers from other within the context of classroom objectives schools or senior instructors from the MOE and activities ensures development of skills ensures that teachers are trained in the in the integrated use of ICT in teaching context of their workplace ICT professional development programme Incorporating online learning into for teachers should be planned, taking into professional development on ICT enriches account the vision of ICT in education policy SERIES 2004 17
  17. 17. Integrating ICTs into Education 6. Capacity Building for Education Research has helped policymakers to Personnel at All Levels formulate ICT targets and goals Training education personnel at all levels Evaluation can demonstrate the reasons for ensures that all aspects of ICT use in the under-utilization of ICT resources and schools are implemented in an efficient, identify major obstacles to their full coherent and complementary way utilization in schools 7. Incentive System and Motivational 2. Evaluation Methodologies Strategies for Teachers Action research is one of the best Formal certification of in-service professional methodologies for documenting the process development that leads to diplomas or degrees of effective ICT integration could provide an incentive for teachers to upgrade and update their skills in and Assessing the learning impact from ICT knowledge of ICT integration use is better measured through other means besides the paper-pencil test method Teachers’ interest in using ICT after their training is more likely to grow if they are To gather the most meaningful data on the provided with computers, training integrated use of ICT in schools, both materials and software for classroom use quantitative and qualitative methodologies should be used, employing various data- gathering instruments, such as case studies, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and focus groups VIII. Monitoring and Evaluation 3. Programme Evaluation 1. Documentation of Benefits of ICT Evaluation of ICT in education programme Use in Education should be a continuous process, covering planning, implementation, reflection, Proper use of ICT tools offers students and refinement, effectiveness and user teachers learning and teaching opportunities acceptance and improves teaching and learning processes Due to limited experience in ICT use in the Investment in research and development region, better quality directions for the projects and centres has contributed programme can be obtained by towards examining existing pedagogical benchmarking the quality of ICT projects practices, revising and refining practices, against international studies, standards and exploring new pedagogical and best practices approaches to ICT in education 18 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  18. 18. Abbreviations Abbreviations AICTP • Accelerating the Use of ICT in Primary Schools, Singapore CAT • Communications Authority of Thailand DepEd • Department of Education, Philippines DTI • Department of Trade and Industry, Philippines DOST • Department of Science and Technology, Philippines ETD • Educational Technology Division IDA • Infocom Development Authority of Singapore IPR • Intellectua Property Right IPST • Institute for the Promotion of Science and Technology. Thailand KERIS • Korea Education and Research Information Service, South Korea NIE • National Institute of Education, Singapore MDA • Media Development Authority, Singapore MDC • Multimedia Development Corporation, Malaysia MICT • Ministry of Information and Communications Technology, Thailand MNC • Multinational Company MOE • Ministry of Education MP1 • First Master Plan for ICT in Education, Singapore MSC • Multimedia Super Corridor, Malaysia NCB • National Computer Board, Singapore NECTEC • National Electronics and Computer Technology Centre, Thailand RBEC • Revitalized Basic Education Curriculum, Philippines SEI • Science Education Institute, Philippines SITES • Second Information Technology in Education Study SSMS • Smart School Management System, Malaysia TOT • Telephone Organization of Thailand WAN • Wide Area Network SERIES 2004 19
  19. 19. Korea PhilippinesMalaysia and Indonesia Philippine Korea South Korea Component Phili Malaysia 1 siaSingapore Philippines aKoreaIndonesia Indon landPhilippinesSingapore Ma ysiaSingapore Philippine Thailand Si Broader land South Korea Indonesia Singapo Thailand Indonesia Th Environmental sia Korea Malaysia Singapore Indo nd Philippines ngapore Philippines South Korea Malay South iland Indonesia reIndonesia Malaysia Context Sing nes Singapo ThailandSouth Korea aysia SingaporePhilip Philippines South Ko sia Indonesia Philippin Thailand apore Thailand South K es Malaysia gapore hailand Indonesia T outh KoreaSouth Malaysi a ThailandKorea Indone
  20. 20. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context Overview n n r n o I CT in education policy falls within a broader environmental context of the education system, ot a covering economic and social infrastructure and policies and global market conditions. Elements n in the education system, including the national curriculum; examination boards; leagues; teacher i u recruitment, training and retention; and the roles of major stakeholders in the education system, may affect the formulation and implementation of ICT in education policy. So Te Discussions in this component focus on three issues: (i) responsiveness of the education system, eT (ii) ICT in education policy and ICT infrastructure a support, and, (iii) the economic and social/cultural a context. aS h The education system and policy support in the areas of budget, curriculum, professional development and research may facilitate or hinder the launching of a country’s ICT in education policy, as well as its expansion and sustainability in the future. The national ICT infrastructure (connectivity and accessibility) may also affect the implementation of ICT in education policy. All these elements are within a larger environmental context that may include the need to develop a competitive workforce – regionally and globally, the economic cycle that a country or the world is undergoing, economic policies (budget cut or expansionary fiscal policy), political and social stability, the bureaucracy of the system, and so on. SERIES 2004 23
  21. 21. Lessons learned Based on the experiences of the six countries, following are the lessons learned with respect to three issues: 1. Education System Responsiveness A well-planned and responsive education system provides an appropriate enabling environment for the successful implementation of ICT in education policy and programme. To make ICT an integral part of the education master plan and ensure programme support, ICT in education policy should share the same vision as other educational policies or initiatives. 2. ICT in Education Policy and ICT Infrastructure Support ICT in education policy that is driven by a vision which can be translated into action targeted at realistic and manageable goals contributes to successful programme implementation. A holistic approach to ICT in education policy goes beyond a technological dimension. Adequate physical and technological infrastructures are necessary conditions for effective ICT integration. 3. Economic and Social/Cultural context A well-developed ICT infrastructure in the economic sector facilitates successful implementation of ICT in education policy. ICT in education policy is one of several key economic strategies to ensure sustained economic development of any country.
  22. 22. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context Synthesis of Experiences Issue 1 Education System Responsiveness lessonlearned 1 A well-planned and responsive education system provides an appropriate enabling environment for the successful implementation of ICT in education policy and programme T his means that various aspects in the education system, such as policy, budget, curriculum, professional development, teaching learning contexts and activities for students), promote enhanced pedagogies (from teacher- to student-centred approaches), facilitate more and learning assessment practices and research effective organizational structures in the affect the integration of ICT. Ongoing changes schools (more autonomy to heads of in the system and policy may include use of ICT departments and teachers, more sharing in all aspects of education. The education system among teachers, and less bureaucracy in the must be responsive to technological changes, organization), and establish stronger links making it easy to integrate these changes in the between schools and society (open system. communication between schools and parents and collaboration with industries and a. Indonesia: Further to efforts to enhance the institutes of higher learning). quality of education and to improve educational relevance and efficiency, the Ministry of c. South Korea: In a knowledge-based society, Education (MOE) is determined to make use of work and education are integrated. Thus, ICT in resolving educational problems. This knowledge is produced not by a small elite policy is stated in the Appendix of Presidential class but by a mass of active workers in the Instruction No. 6 in the year 2000. All workplace. To make the education system departments have responded to the policy more responsive to the needs of a knowledge- positively, although the pace and level of based society, the Korea Education and implementation have varied. Coordinating Research Information Service (KERIS, 2002, teams are being set up to ensure that the policy pp.4-5) has recommended changes to the is implemented effectively and consistently. education system. The first is a change of direction based on learning, not on education. b. Malaysia: The Ministry of Education (MOE) Up to now, the main function of school considers ICT as a means, not an end in itself. education has been to deliver knowledge All departments in the MOE are actively accumulated throughout human history. But engaged in the implementation of the ICT in in a knowledge-based society, knowledge is education policy. The departments work delivered and developed by the people. For together to develop new media as tools for a as long as schools maintain the cramming richer curricula (tools that provide authentic system of education, it will be difficult to 25
  23. 23. Integrating ICTs into Education cultivate new intelligence essential for a However, integration requires effective successful knowledge-based society. coordination and communication among the decentralized administrative structures, within The second change is to have the education and outside the MOE. This has been rather system focus on students. In an industrial difficult to handle at this stage because of society, standardized textbooks and identical frequent staff transfers of personnel in the teaching methods are used in educating responsible units. Current efforts focus on the students who have different aptitudes and implementation of a school-based learning habits. In a knowledge-based society, management approach in a number of pilot the main focus of education is the individual schools to prepare them for responsibilities student. in the areas of policy, budget, curriculum, professional development, research, and The third change is the introduction of a general affairs. creative and self-directed education method. The new knowledge for the knowledge-based e. Singapore: Teaching and assessment society is living knowledge that takes into methods are reviewed and modified account many factors, such as real life continuously to nurture thinking skills and situations and problems. creativity and to encourage knowledge generation and application. Various initiatives Recognising the social paradigm shift, top- have been implemented over the years: level decision makers have supported the Thinking Programme, Project Work, long-term plan for ICT in education, leading Integrated Programmes (for secondary to the country’s ICT in education policies schools and junior colleges) and Fostering a implemented in 1989 up to the present. Spirit of Innovation and Enterprise in Schools. The Project Work (PW), implemented in the d. Thailand : To make the education system schools since 2000, provides students with an more responsive, the newly established school integrated learning experience to explore curriculum standards in eight key learning inter-relationships and inter-connectedness areas incorporate ICT as a tool to support the among different disciplines. It encourages the shift to student-centred approaches. The application of creative and critical thinking integration of ICT in the curriculum is skills and provides opportunities to develop encouraged and driven by several projects and communication, collaborative and lifelong initiatives in line with national and local ICT learning skills. Another initiative is the policies, e.g. EdNet, SchoolNet, Teacher Integrated Programmes (IP) where a broader Support System and ICT Training Centre and more flexible Junior College (JC) Schools. At the same time, administrative curriculum and a more diverse JC/Upper measures at the ministerial level are mandated Secondary Programme are developed to better to facilitate the operation of responsible units prepare students for varied challenges in the at departmental levels in the development of future. The revised JC curriculum will be first ICT educational resources, e.g. e-Learning, e- offered to JC 1 students in 2006, while the Book, on-line testing system and educational first batch of approved IP schools will admit multimedia to support teaching and learning students in 2004. In all these initiatives, ICT in all subject areas. Several special task force is a mediating tool. The first Master Plan for committees have been established to move ICT in Education (MP1) is well placed and these activities forward. supported within the education system. 26 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  24. 24. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context lessonlearned 2 To make ICT an integral part of the education master plan to and ensure programme support, ICT in education policy should share the same vision as other educational policies or initiatives W ith a clear and common vision, ICT becomes part and parcel of education plans, ensuring its implementation. It also c. Singapore: MP1 was implemented in 1997, the same year as the launching of the vision, “Thinking Schools, Learning Nation”. Under enables education stakeholders to examine this vision, the MOE has shifted from opportunities for ICT in education. efficiency- to ability-driven education aimed at developing and harnessing the abilities and a. Malaysia: A mission statement formalized by potential of every child. This vision is the MOE in 1995 reflects the Ministry’s consistent with the objectives of MP1, that is, commitment to the goals of Vision 2020: “To to create a student-centred learning develop a world class quality education environment, inculcate good values and system which will realize the full potential of nurture thinking skills and creativity through the individual and fulfil the aspirations of the the formal and informal curricula. Malaysian nation.” This vision is consistent with the objectives of ICT in education d. South Korea: The objectives of the ICT in policies. education policies are consistent with changes to the education system as proposed by KERIS b. Philippines: The overall goal of education in 2002, covering (i) a change of direction at all levels is the development of a higher based on learning that is geared towards level of thinking skills (e.g., abstracting, construction and generation of knowledge; (ii) planning, critical thinking and problem a focus on students; and (iii) a creative and solving). In support of this, the ICT in self-directed education approach where education policy envisions that ICT will be educationstakeholders are given more used as a mediating tool in education to autonomy. engage students in a higher level of thinking. SERIES 2004 27
  25. 25. Integrating ICTs into Education Issue 2 ICT in Education Policy and ICT Infrastructure Support lessonlearned 1 An ICT in education policy that is driven by a vision which can be translated into action targeted at realistic and manageable goals contributes to successful programme implementation R ealistic goals are observable and measurable. For example, “by the end of 2005, X number of teachers would have been To facilitate the use of the Internet for more effective teaching and learning. trained in the use of ICT in science, mathematics b. Malaysia : The objectives of the ICT in and language” or “by the end of 2005, an education policy are in support of the goal to electronic library would have been set up to achieve a world class education system by support teaching/learning and training 2020. Thus, ICT is used as an enabler to activities”. During the different phases of ICT reduce digital gaps among the schools, as a in education policies, these goals can be assessed teaching and learning tool, and as a tool to to identify gaps and adopt strategies to address increase the productivity, efficiency and them. effectiveness of the management system. When fully developed, the Malaysian Smart a. Indonesia: Based on the vision of life-long School is expected have the following learning, the working teams of MOE have features: developed a five-year action plan (2001-2005) for integrating ICT in education. The Plan A philosophy that affirms students’ ability covers the following: to learn if taught, and responds to the high expectations from students To prepare a masterplan for the development of human resources for ICT. A broad curriculum that considers students’ different capabilities and needs To develop ICT networks for public and private universities, as well as research and A school climate that is conducive to education networks in the country. learning To develop and implement ICT curricula An on-going assessment that supports for all levels of education. good instruction To use ICT as an essential part of the Strong and professional principals and curricula and learning tools in schools, teachers universities and training centres. A high level of parent and community To participate in global learning and other involvement and support networks. 28 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  26. 26. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context c. Singapore: Based on the vision, “Thinking learning approaches engenders Schools, Learning Nation”, the blueprint for innovations and encourages new curricula MP1 consists of four main goals: and new assessment methods to meet the objectives of education. In addition, MP1 Enhance linkages between the school and provides schools with autonomy to use the world around it, so as to expand and ICT resources flexibly to meet the needs enrich the learning environment: Teachers of students. ICT also enhances learning and students can access a wealth of and school administration. educational resources outside the school and collaborate with other educational Promote administrative and management institutions - local and foreign, and the excellence in the education system: ICT community at large. With these new promotes efficient communication within learning connections, students develop the school, among schools and between appropriate perspectives on working and them and the MOE. It also enhances school living in an increasingly borderless and administration and effective decision- complex world. making at all levels. Encourage creative thinking, lifelong d. Thailand: The e-Education component of the learning and social responsibility: 2001-2010 National ICT Master Plan in Students develop competencies in education is fully supportive of the vision of accessing, analyzing and applying lifelong learning. It aims to develop information, and cultivate independent mechanisms for effective educational policy learning. ICT-based learning strategies and management, improve and develop the help to develop the students’ ability to ICT infrastructure to provide education for all, think creatively, to cooperate with one promote and develop human resources at all another and to make sound value levels, accelerate the development of judgments. knowledge and information, and provide more access to knowledge and information. Generate innovations in education: The integration of ICT-based teaching and SERIES 2004 29
  27. 27. Integrating ICTs into Education lessonlearned 2 A holistic approach to ICT in education policy goes beyond a technological dimension A lthough ICT infrastructure may be a necessary condition for successful ICT integration in education, it is not an end in itself. particularly through non-traditional funding schemes. The ICT in education policy should consider other b. Singapore: Four key areas are covered in aspects, such as the curriculum, assessment, ICT MP1: curriculum and assessment, learning resources, professional development of teachers, resources, teacher development, and physical research and development and fund generation. and technological infrastructure. a. Philippines: The ICT Plan for Basic Education c. Thailand: MOE’s ICT Plan focuses on ICT focuses on seven key areas: infrastructure use in four areas: improving the quality of development; technical support; teacher training teaching and learning, developing the in the design, production and use of ICT-based educational management and administration instructional materials; research and system, building the capacity of education development; technology integration in the personnel, and developing educational ICT curriculum; use of innovative technologies in infrastructure. education and training; and fund generation, 30 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  28. 28. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context lessonlearned 3 Adequate physical and technological infrastructures are necessary conditions for effective ICT integration A ccording to many researchers, the most frequently mentioned problem in integrating ICT in education is the insufficient of Vocational Secondary Education in developing local area network for some vocational secondary schools. number of computers (Cheung, 1997; Williams, Coles, Wilson, Richardson, & Tuson, 2000; Another good example is WANKota (City Wide Pelgrum, 2001). Countries with adequate Area Network of Schools) that is managed by budgets for ICT in education tend to have good Directorate of Vocational Secondary Education. physical and technological infrastructures. Other This programme was developed to connect countries have successfully overcome budget vocational schools in one district through the constraints and are able to provide necessary use of wireless technology. Each school is infrastructure based on the needs of the school connected to the centre (server school) utilising or region. Some other countries that have large radio frequency. In other words, WANKota budgets for ICT in education lack the expertise serves as: to identify appropriate hardware and software to purchase and, as a result, ICT integration is 1. a means for information and communication not well-supported by adequate infrastructure. among schools within a specific district, including junior high school, vocational a. Indonesia : Some programmes have been secondary school and senior secondary launched to provide ICT infrastructure in school; schools. Among the programmes are OSOL (One School One Computer Laboratory) and 2. a server for learning materials (especially WAN Kota. OSOL is a programme of the modules) in all subjects required by students; Ministry of Communication and Information under Ministerial Decree 17/KEP/ 3. a centre for information technology training; M.KOMINFO/4/2003, through which the Government encourages all concerned parties 4. a centre for distance learning. to assist in providing good computers for schools at low prices. Many members of the private 5. a digital library centre that can be accessed sector are collaborating among themselves to by all schools in a specific district. produce low-priced computers (US$170–180 each) as well as software for teaching purposes. b. Malaysia : Various types of schools are Through their efforts, it is hoped that every equipped based on their needs, location and school will have its own computer laboratory region. Three models of ICT infrastructure facility. In addition, other members of the are found in pilot schools under the Smart private sector are helping to solve the country’s Schools Project. ICT infrastructure problem. Microsoft Indonesia, for example, is cooperating with Level B provides 37 computers. 21 are many concerned parties. For every used placed in a computer laboratory and the computer donated to a school, Microsoft rest are in the resource centre and Company has provided Microsoft Office for administrative office. There are two free. Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office notebooks and three servers per school. to be used for education purposes are offered at The computers are connected to the a reduced price of about 2.5 USD/license for Internet by Fast Ethernet backbone with MS Windows 98 and MS Office. Another 128/64 kbps leased line. example is Cisco’s assistance to the Directorate SERIES 2004 31
  29. 29. Integrating ICTs into Education Level B+ provides the computer laboratory with respect to power, space and furniture with 81 computers, two notebooks and required for an ICT-enriched school three servers. Six computers are placed in environment, were incorporated into future each of the 15 classrooms and science school building specifications. laboratories. Computers in the resource centre and the administrative office are d. South Korea: Construction of an supported by 128/64 kbps leased line. infrastructure to facilitate ICT use in education was initiated under the Three-Year Level A provides computers in full Plan for the Construction of ICT Infrastructure classrooms. The schools are located in (1997-99).This was revised under the urban areas and are equipped with 520 Comprehensive Plan for ICT Use in computers, five notebooks and six servers Elementary and Secondary Schools (1998- with 512/256 kbps leased line. 35 2002) and again modified in 1999. The current computers are placed in each of the four policy is the Five-Year Plan for Education computer laboratories, seven computers in Development (1999-2003). In January 2000, each of the 40 classrooms, seven President Kim Dae Jung, announced his goal computers in each science laboratory, and to complete the Comprehensive Plan for ICT the rest are in the resource centre, the Use in Education by the end of 2000 and teachers’ room, and the administrative ordered the construction of infrastructure to office. facilitate ICT use in education, in preparation for the 21st century knowledge-based society Countries that face budget constraints could and in accordance with the Seventh School adapt these models. Curriculum. In April 2000, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources c. Singapore: As a guideline for schools, MP1 Development passed a new budget for the set out national standards for ICT Comprehensive Plan for ICT Use in infrastructure by the year 2002, which Education. envisaged that students would spend up to 30% of their study time using ICT. A student- The Comprehensive Plan was completed with computer ratio of 2:1 was targeted for every cooperation from the Ministry of Planning and school by 2002. All primary schools were Budget and the Ministry of Information and initially provided with a student-computer Communication and the infrastructure for ICT ratio of 6.6:1, while secondary schools and use in education was constructed. As a result, junior colleges had an initial student-computer every elementary and secondary school in the ratio of 5:1. Students were also provided country has installed a LAN and is connected access to ICT facilities in all learning areas in to the Internet, marking the first time that this the school, including classrooms, libraries and has been achieved on a national scale special rooms, besides computer laboratories. anywhere in the world. More than 13,000 This encouraged effective integration of ICT computer laboratories are now in use by in the curriculum. teachers and students in these schools. Each of the 222,000 classrooms has PCs and MP1 provided school-wide networking in multimedia equipment. PCs have also been every school and allowed access to distributed to every member of the 340,000 courseware, the Internet and digitized media teaching staff. Thus, all elementary and resources in all classrooms and learning areas. secondary schoolteachers are able to use the Networking also allowed sharing of teaching Internet as a teaching-learning resource. resources within and between schools. All schools were linked through a Wide Area e. Thailand: There are several projects in which Network (WAN), which was eventually educators and researchers employ innovative connected to the high-speed backbone of strategies to combine old and new Singapore ONE. Teachers and students from technologies, exploiting the potential of both, primary four and above were given email and making decisions about the best medium accounts. Additional physical infrastructure, to convey information and to improve 32 ICT LESSONS LEARNED
  30. 30. Component 1. Broader Environmental Context learning. One notable example is Sukhothai A more recent example is the development of Thammathirat Open University’s School of a Linux School Internet Server (Linux SIS) Education (STOU) that offers in-service by the National Electronics and Computer programmes (two-year and four-year degree Technology Centre (NECTEC), offering the programmes and one-year teaching Government a cheaper alternative to move certificates) for the professional upgrading of schools beyond the first phase of Internet teachers. A six-credit course in STOU may implementation and eliminating the need to consist of 15 units of printed text and invest on expensive server software. It also workbooks, 15 twenty-minute radio overcame the language barrier since programmes, 3-5 half-hour TV programmes, documentation is in the Thai language. 1-3 audio-cassettes and 10-25 hours of face- to-face tutorials. SERIES 2004 33
  31. 31. Integrating ICTs into Education Issue 3 Economic and Social/Cultural Context lessonlearned 1 A well-developed ICT infrastructure in the economic sector facilitates successful implementation of ICT in education policy T here should be a national ICT plan to develop basic ICT infrastructure in the country. This plan should provide a foundation for ICT in switches to provide fibre to the buildings. This network has a 5-gigabit international gateway with direct links to the United education policy. States, Europe, and Japan, as well as other countries in Southeast Asia. a. Malaysia: The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), launched in August 1996, is a regional The Multimedia Development Corporation launch site for companies developing or using (MDC), a one-stop shop that manages and leading multimedia technology. It has facilitated markets the MSC. The MDC’s mission is to successful implementation of ICT in education create the best environment for private sector policy. It brings together four key elements: companies to use multimedia and to promote investments in the MSC. Best possible physical infrastructure, including Kuala Lumpur City Centre, the b. Singapore: The Civil Service Computerization new Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Programme launched in 1982 paved the way for rapid rail links to Kuala Lumpur, a smart nationwide computerization and set the pace for highway, and two intelligent garden cities ICT application in Singapore. This was followed (Cyberjaya and Putrajaya). by the National IT Plan (NITP) in which the National Computer Board (NCB) made New laws, policies, and practices designed improvements to the ICT infrastructure as part to enable and encourage electronic of a seven-pronged ICT strategy. The current commerce, facilitate the development of phase of ICT initiatives began in 1991 with the multimedia applications, and position launch of the IT 2000 Master Plan. Singapore Malaysia as a regional leader in intellectual will be transformed into an intelligent island, property protection. where ICT permeates every aspect of life – at home, work and play. These initiatives in High capacity global communications infrastructure development provide the basic infrastructure built on the MSC’s 2.5 – 10 foundation for the introduction of ICT in gigabit digital optical fibre backbone and education. using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 34 ICT LESSONS LEARNED