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Strengths and Challenges in the Implementation of Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative (WJEI)


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Led by Shelah Bloom, Suzanne Maman, Elly Arnoff, and Lauren Hill.

The webinar addressed MEASURE Evaluation's evaluation of the implementation of the Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative (WJEI) by conducting intensive field studies in Benin and Kenya and document review with telephone interviews in South Africa and Zambia.

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Strengths and Challenges in the Implementation of Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative (WJEI)

  1. 1. Strengths and Challenges in theImplementation of Women’s Justice andEmpowerment Initiative (WJEI)Evaluation Team:Suzanne Maman, PhDShelah Bloom, ScDElly Arnoff, MPHLauren Hill
  2. 2. Presentation Summary Introduction Gender-Based Violence Context Project Implementation Evaluation Methods Findings & Recommendations for Kenya andBenin Overarching Recommendations Next Steps
  3. 3. IntroductionWJEI 3 year program in Kenya,Benin, South Africa & Zambia Objectives1) Awareness-raising2) Legal system support3) Care & support of survivorsEvaluation Aims Assess WJEI strategies ineach country Identify best practices &lessons learned acrosscountries Recommendations forreplication
  4. 4. Before the Initiative: Gender-Based Violence ContextSouthAfricaZambia Kenya BeninProgrammatic• Existingnationalnetwork ofone-stop shopcenters• Extensiveresearch onGBV• Existing one-stop modelsfrom pilotproject• Existing small-scale efforts bylocalorganizationsfocusing onawareness• Very few priorGBV programsand none on anational level• Limitedresearch onGBVLegal• Rape andmarital rapeillegal• Sexualharassmentillegal• Extra-maritalrape illegal,but not othertypes of GBV• Sexual assaultillegal, but notmarital rape• Domesticviolence illegal• Rape illegal, butwith weakenforcement
  6. 6. South AfricaThuthuzela Care Centers Implementing partner: RTIInternational Dates: 2009-2012 Geographic scope: national, 9provincesActivities Awareness-raising Focus on promoting TCC services Legal system support Strengthening the dedicated SexualOffences Courts and building capacityof the judiciary Care & support of survivors Technical assistance to 23 new andexisting TCC sites Grants to NGOs for psychosocialservices and follow-up support
  7. 7. ZambiaA Safer Zambia (ASAZA) Implementing partners: CAREInternational & World VisionZambia Dates: 2008 – 2011 Geographic scope: 7 districts in 5out of 9 provincesActivities Awareness-raising Mass media campaign Training & community events Legal system support Promoted GBV law Trained paralegals Care & support ofsurvivors Established coordinatedresponse centers (CRCs)
  8. 8. KenyaSita Kimya (we will not be silent) Implementing partner: PathfinderInternational & PopulationServices International Dates: 2009 - 2011 Geographic scope: Kibera slum inNairobiActivities Awareness-raising Community awareness sessionsin Kibera Promoted locally-branded slogan Legal system support Sensitized police Gender-desk at local police station Care & support of survivors Community-based services Strengthening health services atKenyatta National Hospital’s GBVRecovery Centre
  9. 9. BeninEMPOWER Implementing partner: CAREInternational Dates: 2007 – 2012 Geographical scope: national withfocus in 56 provincesActivities Awareness-raising Mass media campaigns Sensitization sessions Legal system support Advocacy trainings Promoted GBV law Care & support of survivors Referral mechanism
  11. 11. Key Research Questions Broader environment of programimplementation Key project design decisions Strengths and challenges Perceived change in gender norms andattitudes Sustainability
  12. 12. Field Data Collection Methods Developed semi-structuredinterview guide Trained research assistants Conducted face-to-face in-depth interviews & focusgroup discussions Interviews/discussions wereaudiotaped, transcribed andtranslated for analysis
  13. 13. In-depth Interviews (IDIs) & FocusGroup Discussions (FGDs) Respondent types Funder Host government partners NGO & CBO implementingpartners Community-based projectagents Program beneficiaries Service providers Judicial system/police Non-WJEI stakeholders
  14. 14. Qualitative Analyses Read for content Topical and thematic coding Double-coding Identify emerging themes Summarize data Interpretation
  16. 16. KIBERA, KENYA
  17. 17. Findings: Awareness-raisingStrengths Strong communicationsapproach Facilitator training Audience-tailored messaging Branded messaging Locally produced film High communityengagement Mobilization Ownership Capacity-building Perceived changes Knowledge and awareness Attitudinal & behavioralchanges Breaking the silence
  18. 18. Findings: Awareness-raisingChallenges Facilitation difficulties Multi-sectoral knowledge base Compensation Venues Limited branding materials Messages not alwaysacceptable Some schools Dissenting opinions & attitudes Limited population reach Limited time-frame Male engagement Community turnover
  19. 19. Recommendations:Awareness-raising Effective messaging around GBV Tailored to specific audiences Raise rights-consciousness Offer points of services Locally-branded slogan Target entire population Contextually specific approaches to reach men Multi-media strategies Support community-based project agents Follow up sessions with participants
  20. 20. Findings: Legal Strengths Community holdingperpetratorsaccountable Judiciary Adjudication of childsexual abuse casesincreasing Police Gender desk helpedreduce bribery/corruption Local leadership High involvement Increased support
  21. 21. Findings: Legal Challenges Judicial barriers Lengthy process Witnesses Cases dropped Community-handled justice Police difficulties Lack of coordination withhealth sector Perception as unsupportive Staff shortages and turnover Lack of coordination withDOJ’s legal activities Marital rape not in GBV law Perceived governmentcorruption
  22. 22. Recommendations: Legal• Identify gaps in national GBV and gender-relatedpolicies• Promote coordination of health and legalauthorities• Strengthen the evidence chain for GBV cases• Support advocacy efforts of local change agents• Support community-based legal assistance
  23. 23. Findings: Care & SupportStrengths Health services Increased hospital support Increased hospital staffsensitization Equipment & personnelsupport Increase in cases handled Community-basedservices Capacity building Effective case management Sustainability
  24. 24. Findings: Care & SupportChallenges Health services Incomplete one-stop shopmodel Personnel issues Cost of services Project provider selection Community-basedservices Lack of resources Community perception ofviolence as a domesticissue Case follow-through
  25. 25. Recommendations: Care &Support Better alliances withexisting health serviceproviders Support sustainablecommunity-basedsystems of care andsupport
  26. 26. BENIN
  27. 27. Findings: Awareness-raisingStrengths High awarenesscoverage Diverse communicationstrategies High awareness of the projectand GBV laws Survivors aware of reportingand support resources Effective messaging Focus on community benefits ofpreventing GBV Happy families and households Economic benefits of girls’ education Rights emphasis Positive rather than punitivemessage
  28. 28. Findings: Awareness-raisingChallenges Did not engage allpopulations Isolated communities Men and boys Cultural barriers Incongruence betweenmessages and communityvalues Local leader opposition Lack of facilitatorcompensation
  29. 29. Recommendations:Awareness-raising Consider norms around family structure and divorcewhich the project may affect Project implications for stability of traditional family structure Norms around formal law enforcement and attitudes toward forces of law Consider how to engage men not only as project agentsbut as beneficiaries as well Make discussion of gender more inclusive (i.e. not just women’s rights) Promote male-positive messages
  30. 30. Findings: Legal Strengths Law seen as milestone in GBV legislation Unanimously voted in by legislators High awareness and appreciation of the new GBVlaw
  31. 31. Findings: Legal Challenges Police difficulties View that police deal with perpetratorsheavy-handedly Case processing can be very slow Corruption Survivors discouraged and drop cases Cultural barriers to lawenforcement Persistent informal reconciliation Views that incarceration disrupts familystability
  32. 32. Recommendations: Legal Consider multiple primary points of contact toaccess the legal system Levels of comfort with different actors may vary bycontext Promote norm-transformative communicationactivities to encourage the acceptability andenforcement of new laws
  33. 33. Findings: Care & SupportStrengths Strengthening of existing government servicesthrough provider capacity building Survivors aware of services and points of contact Trust in project agents as survivor advocates
  34. 34. Findings: Care & SupportChallenges Service coordinationissues Lack of reliable communicationchannels Lack of clear referral mechanism Gaps in survivor support Referrals a barrier to continuedcare Medical certificates only availablein larger towns No housing for displaced survivors Lack of women’seconomic empowerment
  35. 35. Recommendations: Care &Support Provide for comprehensive care and support of survivorsto promote case reporting and improve health Lodging Support of survivor and women’s financial autonomy Direct funds for costs of care Consider access to services in remote areas Ensure close integration of health and complementaryservices Make medical certificates accessible at a more local level
  37. 37. Overarching RecommendationsAwareness-raisingAudience-tailored messages for entire population with emphasison men and boysLegalAddress bottlenecks in medical and legal services essential forGBV justiceCare & supportPromote locally-based systems of comprehensive care andsupport
  38. 38. NEXT STEPS
  39. 39. Final Report Rich descriptions from field researchin Kenya & Benin Project Implementation Case reporting issues Community perceptions on GBV Analysis on projects South Africa & Zambia Desk review & interviews with partners
  40. 40. Thank you!
  41. 41. MEASURE Evaluation is a MEASURE project funded by theU.S. Agency for International Development and implemented bythe Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolinaat Chapel Hill in partnership with Futures Group International,ICF Macro, John Snow, Inc., Management Sciences for Health,and Tulane University. Views expressed in this presentation do notnecessarily reflect the views of USAID or the U.S. Government.MEASURE Evaluation is the USAID Global Health Bureausprimary vehicle for supporting improvements in monitoring andevaluation in population, health and nutrition worldwide.