Factors Contributing to Illiteracy Problem among Orang Asli Students in Terengganu. Wan Muhaimin bin Wan Ahmad 2011801048
Definition of TermsOrang Asli - refers to the indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysiawho are not Malay Muslims, Malaysia’s main ethnic group. Nicholas, 2003Literacy – the ability to read, write, listen, speak and communicateeffectively. Cooper, 1997Illiteracy – literate problem; inability to read and write. Cooper, 1997 Socioeconomic - refers to the parents’ level of income, their occupational status, their level of education, and the personal possessions in the home. Cooper, 1997
Definition of Terms Motivation - the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. Franken, 2006 Attitudes - An evaluative disposition toward some object based upon cognitions, affective reactions, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors ...that can influence cognitions, affective responses, and future intentions and behaviors. Zimbardo and Leippe (1991)
Introduction• Orang Asli or the indigenous people is a community that contributes a lot to the development of this country.• In Malaysia, the population of Orang Asli is 154896 people (JAKOA, 2010)• These community is seen as less developed compared to other races in the country.• In terms of education, the illiteracy rate is high; 49.2% of the people are illiterate.
Problem StatementsIt has been observed that indigenous community are living in a widespread poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, absence of drinking water and sanitary living conditions, poor maternal and child health conditions. Bose et al. (1990), Chaudhuri (1990)
NEW MILLENIUM Children need to be prepared to be able to function effectively in a highly literate society. They have to demonstrate literate behaviour.PAST acquire the READ ability to LISTEN WRITE SPEAK COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY Cooper, 1997
Inability to use reading to master other subject areas Low academic achievement Poor self-esteem CONSEQUENCES Failure to finish high schoolASSOCIATED WITH Allington, 1995; Jacobson, Olsen, Rice, & Sweetland, 2001 ILLITERACY AND LOW LITERACY Living life in poverty Unemployment and underemployment Involvement in criminal activity Intergenerational transfer of illiteracy or low literacy DeBruin-Parecki, Paris, & Siedenburg, 1997; Rush, 1999
B e ca u s e o f t h e s e co n s e q u e n c e s , i t i si m p o r ta nt to p re ve nt i l l i te ra c y d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . U n d e rsta n d i n g t h e fa c to rs t h at co nt r i b u te to i l l i te ra c y i s a n i m p o r ta nt ste p to wa rd s c re at i n gi nte r ve nt i o n s to a d d re s s t h e p ro b l e m .
Theoretical Framework Socioeconomic Bose et al (1990), Karine (2007), Andrejs & Antra (2008), Joshi (2010) Motivation Beach (1996), Guthrie (1996) Cooper (1997), Kamarulzaman (2008) Attitudes & Participation Illiteracy Davidson & Snow (1995),Kamarulzaman (2008), Andrejs & Antra (2008), Accessibility Kamarulzaman (2008), Andrejs & Antra (2008), Joshi (2010) Learning Environment Dickinson & DeTemple, (1998), Fitzgerald et al. (1991)
Research Objectives1. To examine the relationship between family socioeconomic status andilliteracy problem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.2. To examine the relationship between motivation and illiteracy problemamong Orang Asli students in Terengganu.3. To examine the relationship between attitudes and participations in learningand illiteracy problem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.4. To examine the relationship between accessibility to education and illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.5. To examine the relationship between learning environment and illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.
Research Questions1. How does family socioeconomic status affect the illiteracy problem amongOrang Asli students in Terengganu?2. How does motivation affect the illiteracy problem among Orang Aslistudents in Terengganu?3. How does attitudes and participations in learning affect the illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu?4. How does the accessibility to education affect the illiteracy problem amongOrang Asli students in Terengganu?5. How does learning environment affect the illiteracy problem among OrangAsli students in Terengganu?
LITERATURE REVIEW• Factors associated with effective literacy learning have been examined, identified and debated by many researchers throughout the years. (Stokes, 2002)• Qualitative researches using teachers’ observations and interviews done have given us some strategies for effectual literacy instructions. (Pressly, 2002)• Snow et al. (1998) state that due to the progressing technological society, there is a need for individuals to not only be literate, but also capable to read the increasingly more challenging materials.
• Although there are some progress in the area of effectual literacy instructions, many children are still experiencing literacy difficulties. (Snow et al., 1998)• Research findings over the years have shown that children who are raised in poverty and whose parents’ reading and writing skills are poor, are prone to have reading difficulties. (Lyon, 1998; Snow et al., 1998)• In addition to that, it has been observed that indigenous community are living in a widespread poverty and illiteracy. (Bose et al., 1990)• In a relatively newer finding, Xaxa (2001) supports Bose et al., stating that indigenous people are still lagging behind very much against the general population in literacy and educational attainment.
• Andrejs and Antra (2008) have identified a few factors that lead to children to have literacy difficulties, namely the socioeconomic factors, collaboration of students and family, students’ reading habit inside and outside of school.• Some factors suggested by Andrejs and Antra are also suggested by Joshi (2010). The factors suggested by Joshi are; the low status in health, education and economic, the access to schooling and effective participation, and also poverty.• Besides those factors, other researchers looked into motivation as one of the factors that contribute to the issue. (Beach, 1996; Cooper, 1997; Guthrie, 1996)
METHODOLOGY Research Design Correlational researchWhy? To examine the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
METHODOLOGY PopulationLevel 2 students from SK Sungai Pergam, Kemaman (43 students) and SK Sungai Berua, Kuala Berang (58 students). Total population = 101 students.
METHODOLOGY Sampling FrameName lists of Year 4, 5 and 6 students from both schools.