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NACE Standards - Measuring the Pressure of Sour Gas and Crude

In 1943 a group of corrosion engineers working in the pipeline industry formed the National Association of Corrosion Engineers with the goal of "protecting people, assets, and the environment from corrosion”. In the 1960s, they commenced development of control standards to define appropriate materials for a wide variety of corrosive applications, including oil and gas production and refinery facilities. In 1993, the organization was renamed “NACE International”. Today, NACE offers over 150 standards that address metal corrosion in a vast number of applications ranging from exposed metal structures to corrosion resistant coatings on railroad cars. The following NACE Standards White Paper (courtesy of Ashcroft) discusses NACE standards that specifically address corrosion resulting from expo- sure to sour gas or sour crude.

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NACE Standards – White Paper
NACE Standards
measuring the pressure of sour gas and crude
NACE Standards – White Paper
Courtesy of Mead O'Brien
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper
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NACE Standards – White Paper
NACE Standards
Measuring the Pressure of Sour Gas and Crude
Every mechanically activated pressure instrument relies on an
elastic element to bend in response to a pressurized medium.
Most often, the element is a metallic “C” shaped or coiled Bour-
don tube that attempts to straighten under pressure. Specifiers
need to be especially careful that the chemical composition of
the excitation medium does not react unfavorably with the instru-
ment’s wetted materials. Measuring the pressure of compressed
air or water seldom results in an incompatibility. However, when
oil and gas first come out of the ground, the story can be quite dif-
ferent. Both hydrogen sulfide (H2
S) and carbon dioxide (CO2
, when
combined with water forms carbonic acid) can exist as unwanted
components. Raw petroleum fluids infused with hydrogen sulfide
are known as “sour gas” or “sour crude”, and can attack contain-
ment materials, causing stress corrosion cracking. This can lead
to a breach in the vessel and allow gas or oil to escape into the
surrounding environment. The consequences can be disastrous.
To measure harsh pressure media, it is preferable to use an instru-
ment with compatible wetted parts. However, this choice is limited
by the ability of compatible materials to perform adequately as a
Bourdon tube. The alternative is to isolate the pressure instrument
from corrosive media by installing a diaphragm seal in between.
Although offered in a variety of corrosion-resistant materials, not
all will be impervious to every combination of application vari-
ables. Given the consequences of component failures, the selec-
tion of appropriate materials and best practices is paramount. So
what are the correct materials? Who will make the determination?
HOW IT STARTED
Founded in 1943 by corrosion engineers working in the pipeline
industry, the National Association of Corrosion Engineers set out
“To protect people, assets, and the environment from corrosion”.
By the 1960s, they had begun to develop control standards that
would establish appropriate materials for a wide variety of cor-
rosive applications, including oil and gas production and refinery
facilities. In 1993, the organization was renamed “NACE® Interna-
tional” after having grown in scope, importance and geography.
WHAT DOES NACE SPECIFY?
NACE offers over 150 standards that address metal corrosion in
a vast number of applications ranging from exposed metal struc-
tures to corrosion resistant coatings on railroad cars. For pur-
poses of this overview, the discussion will be limited to the NACE
standards that specifically address corrosion resulting from expo-
sure to sour gas or sour crude. The two primary NACE standards
are MR0103 that applies to refineries, and MR0175 (also adopted
by ISO as 15156) which is directed to oil and gas production. Both
apply to metals only, and do not address plastics or elastomers.
Using materials selected in accordance with these NACE stan-
dards will reduce the likelihood of failure due to stress corrosion
cracking in sour environments.
MR0175 / ISO 15156 – 2009: “Materials for Use in H2
S Containing
Environments in Oil and Gas Production”. This specification has
been adopted as a worldwide standard by NACE, ANSI, and ISO.
It is divided into three sections, separately addressing general re-
quirements, ferrous alloys, and corrosion resistant alloys as used
in sour oil and gas field applications.
MR0103 – 2010: “Materials Resistant to Sulfide Corrosion Crack-
ing in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments”. This docu-
ment addresses the selection of materials in oil and gas refineries.
Refinery environments are typically less severe than production
environments, due to lower chloride concentrations and higher
pH levels. As a result, MR0103 tends to be less stringent than
MR0175 / ISO15156.
These NACE specifications only consider stress corrosion crack-
ing due to exposure to H2
S and other corrosives and do not ad-
dress general or localized corrosion. Additionally, the standards
restrict the usage of many alloys by limiting the temperature, pH,
and/or composition to which these alloys may be exposed. It is
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper
3
NACE Standards – White Paper
the responsibility of the specifier to select an appropriate instru-
ment or component with the correct features for their particular
set of variables to ensure NACE compliance.
THE VARIABLES
Temperature
The temperature of the process medium can have a significant
effect on the ability of any material to resist corrosion. Stainless
steels are especially sensitive to temperature, especially when
chlorides are present
Chemistry
The presence of hydrogen sulfide, chlorides (salts, often from
subterranean salt deposits) and carbon dioxide can all contribute
to corrosion. The quantities and combinations of these com-
pounds will also be a factor in determining the adequacy of spe-
cific metals.
pH
Whether the pressure media are acid or base is another consid-
eration. Low pH (acids) can increase corrosion rates and cause
hydrogen liberation that can result in embrittlement of the metal.
Metallurgical Condition
Hardened metals are more susceptible to stress fractures. An-
nealed metals are softer and less likely to crack, but have a lower
tensile strength.
ASSURING THAT A COMPONENT IS COMPLIANT
To ensure that a component meets the NACE standards, deter-
minations can be based on:
Meeting the Conditions Specified in the Standard
By following the NACE recommendations, all requirements will
be met. When in doubt, use materials that are compliant with the
worse-case application.
Laboratory Testing
Laboratory tests that recreate applicable test variables defined
in the standard will ensure that the tested materials and compo-
nents will be compatible. Certified testing labs with experience in
this type of testing will establish and execute an appropriate test
protocol.
Field Experience
Components that have been in service and have not succumbed
to corrosion over an appropriate period of time may be docu-
mented and considered a proof test for the specific application.
SO WHAT MATERIALS CAN BE USED?
Depending upon the severity of the corrosive conditions, different
materials may be safely employed. In these cases, metal choices
are a function of cost. While Hastelloy®
C22/C276 or titanium
may be the best choice to ensure unquestionable compatibility,
the price for these specialized metals would add unnecessary
cost to facilities handling less harsh media.
The list and chart below provide a simplified reference for choices
of metals tested and used by Ashcroft as elastic elements and
other wetted parts, (in compliance with NACE MR0175):
  Favorable Conditions
  (Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and chlorides)
 • Stainless Steels (316 is most commonly used)
 • Alloy 20
  Moderate Conditions
  (Where higher temperatures can begin to hasten corrosion,
  depending on the chemistry of the media)
 • Super Duplex Steels
 • Alloy 400 (Monel®
)
  Extreme Conditions
  (High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, chlorides and acids
  and high temperatures pose a risk of stress cracking due to
  corrosion. Titanium and Nickel, Chromium and Molybdenum
  alloys are best, but most expensive)
 • Hastelloy®
C22/C276
 • Alloy 400 (Monel®
)
 • Titanium
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper
4
NACE Standards – White Paper
NACE specifications are detailed and can be complex when ad-
dressing combinations of variables. Regardless, they are import-
ant and necessary requirements for the safe measurement and
control of raw, corrosive gas and oil that have been extracted
from the ground or seabed.
To learn more about NACE specifications, visit www.nace.org.
This article was written by John Carissimi (Media Manager) and
Jeremy Payne (Materials and Testing, Engineering Manager) of
Ashcroft Inc. With over 160 years of experience, Ashcroft man-
ufactures pressure and temperature instrumentation, including
media isolation devices, for a wide variety of industries through-
out the world, including oil and gas processes. For more informa-
tion about Ashcroft®
products, please visit www.ashcroft.com or
call 800/385-0635.
These pages have not been reviewed/approved by NACE®
Inter-
national and are offered as an introductory reference only. Speci-
fiers and users should refer to the published NACE specifications
to establish the correct materials for their applications.
© Ashcroft Inc.
NACE®
is a registered trademark of NACE®
International.
Monel®
is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation.
Hastelloy®
is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc.
Read our product information page about NACE standards and
material selection.
www.ashcroft.com/productinformation_pdf/upload/
pi-page-gauge-sour-oilfield-sour-petroleum-refining-nace-
mro175-mro103-ash-pi-60c.pdf
Our Critical Applications Solutions Experts (CASESM
) are
available to help you select the appropriate materials when
specifying Ashcroft® instrumentation.
 
www.ashcroft.com/solutions/case.cfm
All specifications are subject to change without notice.
All sales subject to standard terms and conditions.
© 2016 Ashcroft Inc. Rev. B 05/27/16
ashcroft.com
info@ashcroft.com
1.800.328.8258
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper
5
NACE Standards – White Paper
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper
6
NACE Standards – White Paper
All specifications are subject to change without notice.
All sales subject to standard terms and conditions.
© 2016 Ashcroft Inc.
ashcroft.com
info@ashcroft.com
1.800.328.8258
Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com

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NACE Standards - Measuring the Pressure of Sour Gas and Crude

  • 1. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 1 NACE Standards – White Paper NACE Standards measuring the pressure of sour gas and crude NACE Standards – White Paper Courtesy of Mead O'Brien Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
  • 2. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 2 NACE Standards – White Paper NACE Standards Measuring the Pressure of Sour Gas and Crude Every mechanically activated pressure instrument relies on an elastic element to bend in response to a pressurized medium. Most often, the element is a metallic “C” shaped or coiled Bour- don tube that attempts to straighten under pressure. Specifiers need to be especially careful that the chemical composition of the excitation medium does not react unfavorably with the instru- ment’s wetted materials. Measuring the pressure of compressed air or water seldom results in an incompatibility. However, when oil and gas first come out of the ground, the story can be quite dif- ferent. Both hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO2 , when combined with water forms carbonic acid) can exist as unwanted components. Raw petroleum fluids infused with hydrogen sulfide are known as “sour gas” or “sour crude”, and can attack contain- ment materials, causing stress corrosion cracking. This can lead to a breach in the vessel and allow gas or oil to escape into the surrounding environment. The consequences can be disastrous. To measure harsh pressure media, it is preferable to use an instru- ment with compatible wetted parts. However, this choice is limited by the ability of compatible materials to perform adequately as a Bourdon tube. The alternative is to isolate the pressure instrument from corrosive media by installing a diaphragm seal in between. Although offered in a variety of corrosion-resistant materials, not all will be impervious to every combination of application vari- ables. Given the consequences of component failures, the selec- tion of appropriate materials and best practices is paramount. So what are the correct materials? Who will make the determination? HOW IT STARTED Founded in 1943 by corrosion engineers working in the pipeline industry, the National Association of Corrosion Engineers set out “To protect people, assets, and the environment from corrosion”. By the 1960s, they had begun to develop control standards that would establish appropriate materials for a wide variety of cor- rosive applications, including oil and gas production and refinery facilities. In 1993, the organization was renamed “NACE® Interna- tional” after having grown in scope, importance and geography. WHAT DOES NACE SPECIFY? NACE offers over 150 standards that address metal corrosion in a vast number of applications ranging from exposed metal struc- tures to corrosion resistant coatings on railroad cars. For pur- poses of this overview, the discussion will be limited to the NACE standards that specifically address corrosion resulting from expo- sure to sour gas or sour crude. The two primary NACE standards are MR0103 that applies to refineries, and MR0175 (also adopted by ISO as 15156) which is directed to oil and gas production. Both apply to metals only, and do not address plastics or elastomers. Using materials selected in accordance with these NACE stan- dards will reduce the likelihood of failure due to stress corrosion cracking in sour environments. MR0175 / ISO 15156 – 2009: “Materials for Use in H2 S Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production”. This specification has been adopted as a worldwide standard by NACE, ANSI, and ISO. It is divided into three sections, separately addressing general re- quirements, ferrous alloys, and corrosion resistant alloys as used in sour oil and gas field applications. MR0103 – 2010: “Materials Resistant to Sulfide Corrosion Crack- ing in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments”. This docu- ment addresses the selection of materials in oil and gas refineries. Refinery environments are typically less severe than production environments, due to lower chloride concentrations and higher pH levels. As a result, MR0103 tends to be less stringent than MR0175 / ISO15156. These NACE specifications only consider stress corrosion crack- ing due to exposure to H2 S and other corrosives and do not ad- dress general or localized corrosion. Additionally, the standards restrict the usage of many alloys by limiting the temperature, pH, and/or composition to which these alloys may be exposed. It is Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
  • 3. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 3 NACE Standards – White Paper the responsibility of the specifier to select an appropriate instru- ment or component with the correct features for their particular set of variables to ensure NACE compliance. THE VARIABLES Temperature The temperature of the process medium can have a significant effect on the ability of any material to resist corrosion. Stainless steels are especially sensitive to temperature, especially when chlorides are present Chemistry The presence of hydrogen sulfide, chlorides (salts, often from subterranean salt deposits) and carbon dioxide can all contribute to corrosion. The quantities and combinations of these com- pounds will also be a factor in determining the adequacy of spe- cific metals. pH Whether the pressure media are acid or base is another consid- eration. Low pH (acids) can increase corrosion rates and cause hydrogen liberation that can result in embrittlement of the metal. Metallurgical Condition Hardened metals are more susceptible to stress fractures. An- nealed metals are softer and less likely to crack, but have a lower tensile strength. ASSURING THAT A COMPONENT IS COMPLIANT To ensure that a component meets the NACE standards, deter- minations can be based on: Meeting the Conditions Specified in the Standard By following the NACE recommendations, all requirements will be met. When in doubt, use materials that are compliant with the worse-case application. Laboratory Testing Laboratory tests that recreate applicable test variables defined in the standard will ensure that the tested materials and compo- nents will be compatible. Certified testing labs with experience in this type of testing will establish and execute an appropriate test protocol. Field Experience Components that have been in service and have not succumbed to corrosion over an appropriate period of time may be docu- mented and considered a proof test for the specific application. SO WHAT MATERIALS CAN BE USED? Depending upon the severity of the corrosive conditions, different materials may be safely employed. In these cases, metal choices are a function of cost. While Hastelloy® C22/C276 or titanium may be the best choice to ensure unquestionable compatibility, the price for these specialized metals would add unnecessary cost to facilities handling less harsh media. The list and chart below provide a simplified reference for choices of metals tested and used by Ashcroft as elastic elements and other wetted parts, (in compliance with NACE MR0175):   Favorable Conditions   (Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and chlorides)  • Stainless Steels (316 is most commonly used)  • Alloy 20   Moderate Conditions   (Where higher temperatures can begin to hasten corrosion,   depending on the chemistry of the media)  • Super Duplex Steels  • Alloy 400 (Monel® )   Extreme Conditions   (High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, chlorides and acids   and high temperatures pose a risk of stress cracking due to   corrosion. Titanium and Nickel, Chromium and Molybdenum   alloys are best, but most expensive)  • Hastelloy® C22/C276  • Alloy 400 (Monel® )  • Titanium Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
  • 4. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 4 NACE Standards – White Paper NACE specifications are detailed and can be complex when ad- dressing combinations of variables. Regardless, they are import- ant and necessary requirements for the safe measurement and control of raw, corrosive gas and oil that have been extracted from the ground or seabed. To learn more about NACE specifications, visit www.nace.org. This article was written by John Carissimi (Media Manager) and Jeremy Payne (Materials and Testing, Engineering Manager) of Ashcroft Inc. With over 160 years of experience, Ashcroft man- ufactures pressure and temperature instrumentation, including media isolation devices, for a wide variety of industries through- out the world, including oil and gas processes. For more informa- tion about Ashcroft® products, please visit www.ashcroft.com or call 800/385-0635. These pages have not been reviewed/approved by NACE® Inter- national and are offered as an introductory reference only. Speci- fiers and users should refer to the published NACE specifications to establish the correct materials for their applications. © Ashcroft Inc. NACE® is a registered trademark of NACE® International. Monel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation. Hastelloy® is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc. Read our product information page about NACE standards and material selection. www.ashcroft.com/productinformation_pdf/upload/ pi-page-gauge-sour-oilfield-sour-petroleum-refining-nace- mro175-mro103-ash-pi-60c.pdf Our Critical Applications Solutions Experts (CASESM ) are available to help you select the appropriate materials when specifying Ashcroft® instrumentation.   www.ashcroft.com/solutions/case.cfm All specifications are subject to change without notice. All sales subject to standard terms and conditions. © 2016 Ashcroft Inc. Rev. B 05/27/16 ashcroft.com info@ashcroft.com 1.800.328.8258 Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
  • 5. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 5 NACE Standards – White Paper Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com
  • 6. Ashcroft | NACE Standards - White Paper 6 NACE Standards – White Paper All specifications are subject to change without notice. All sales subject to standard terms and conditions. © 2016 Ashcroft Inc. ashcroft.com info@ashcroft.com 1.800.328.8258 Mead O'Brien | (800) 892-2769 | www.meadobrien.com