Genetic engineering

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A presentation about genetic engineering, GMOs and other related subjects

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Genetic engineering

  1. 1. GeneticEngineeringDone By:-Khalid K.AdibHazimAli HaiderBishr
  2. 2. Definition It is techniques that alter the genes of an organism by means that are not possible under natural conditions
  3. 3. FACT ABOUT GE. 92.5% of land around the world is GMO free; 176 out of the 192 countries grow no GMOs at all; In over 10 years on the market, only four GM crops aregrown in significant quantity – soya, maize, cotton and oil-seed rape. These four crops represent 99% of GMOs sold; commercial GM crops have one or both of just twotraits: herbicide-tolerance and insect resistance; GE can be used to correct genetic defect that is eitherinherited of acquired.
  4. 4. Xenotransplantationis the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another through GE. Human xenotransplantation offers a potential treatment for organ failure. It can also transport viruses from one species to another, for example: (PERV) in pigs can spread to humans through xenotransplantation
  5. 5.  Venomous cabbage Web-spinning goats Making Plastic from Maize Less flatulent cows Glow-in-the-dark-cats
  6. 6. Venomous CabbageScientists have taken the gene in scorpion tails and combined it with cabbage. This would limit pesticide use and still prevent caterpillars from damaging cabbage crops. The poison kills insects but isn’t harmful to humans.
  7. 7. Researchers inserted a spiders’ silk gene into the goats’ DNA and made the silk protein only in their milk. This “silk milk” could then be used to manufacture a web-like material called Biosteel.
  8. 8. And BioSteel is used to producethe strongest bulletproof vest…
  9. 9. GM Maize Making plastic from maize is a process done by inserting genes of bacteria and yeast into it, and after several chemical reactions, plastic is produced. This saves money, time and the environment.
  10. 10.  Widespread death due to allergic reaction. Irreversible bio-pollution. A single mistake has devastating repercussions. An increasing demand for genetic modification effectively increases discontentment for the original genetic configuration of an organism. Prospect of creating new species might create natural imbalances especially on the habitats and feeding habits of other animals. Creating new species, competition might arise, and it might be a predator to a prey who are already endangered, or for its own survival, it might need to destroy the habitats of others. Unexpected and undetected mutations can generally alter the future in unpleasant ways.
  11. 11. Other disadvantages of GE Deaths and Near-Deaths of GMOs and their consumers Food Allergy Reactions Cancer and Degenerative Diseases Toxicity to Soil Extinction of Seed Varieties Unpredictable Consequences
  12. 12. Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering in its present form has beenaround for approximately 25 years. It has alsobeen a very widely debated topic from itsbeginning in 1970s. There are many socialconsequences that are associated with geneticengineering, that makes the overall risk or benefitassessment very complicated. The benefits ofgenetic engineering in each field will be shown inthe next slides.
  13. 13. Benefits of GE.Genetic Engineering in human cloning has a great role.Almost everyday, a scientist makes a new breakthrough inthe field of human engineering. Mammals have beensuccessfully cloned and the human genome project hasbeen completed. This is pushing the scientists all over theworld to research many different facets of human geneticengineering. These researches have allowed a betterunderstanding of DNA and its role in medicine,pharmacology, reproductive technology and various otherfields.
  14. 14. Benefits of GE. In pharmaceuticals: Thanks to genetic engineering, the pharmaceutical products available today are far superior to their predecessors. These new products are created by cloning certain genes. Some of the prominent examples are the bio- engineered insulin which was earlier obtained from sheep or cows and the human growth hormone. Furthermore new medicines are being made by changing the genetic structure of plant cells. In agriculture: The field of agriculture too greatly benefits from genetic engineering which has improved the genetic fitness of various plant species. The common benefits are increase in the efficiency of photosynthesis, increasing the resistance of the plant to salinity, drought and viruses, also reducing the plants need for a nitrogen fertilizer. The latest research at Cornell University is to map the Oat crop so that extra nutrients can be added to the sequence and the make the crop healthier. Similar research is done with the Soya crop as well.
  15. 15. Genetic engineering when used on microorganisms, help in the creationof new pharmaceuticals which cannot be made in any other way.Moreover, It has helped lower the overall usage of herbicide and pesticide.Genetic engineering has helped with the production of vaccines andother drugs in plants.Genetic engineering has helped produce quicker and more predictableway of generating new cultivars. Further, the cultivar properties are betterknown today than it was ever known before.
  16. 16.  Today, genetic engineering can produce sustainable agriculture. Genetic engineering has produced very useful genetically modified breeds which can tolerate factory farming without any suffering. In humans, genetic engineering is used to treat genetic disorders and cancer. It also helps in supplying new body parts. Although, this has not been done today, genetic engineering has the potential of creating new types of human beings with many advantageous traits. Certain bacterial sequences are manipulated to transform waste into ethanol, so that it can be used as a fuel.
  17. 17. However…. The pros of genetic engineering are far toomany to list. But it is important to understand theboundaries to which the human race can push itself andstop before it is too late to stop the unpredictableconsequences
  18. 18. The End

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