It is based on the work of Dr. Bob Marzano and McREL (Mid-continent Research for Education & Learning as presented by them and found in: Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement by Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock A Handbook for Classroom Instruction that Works by Marzano, Norford, Paynter, Pickering, and Gaddy
In the early 1970’s, educational researchers began studying the effects of instruction on student learning. With the assistance of Dr. Bob Marzano, McREL (Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning) analyzed selected research studies on instructional strategies that could be used in K-12 classrooms. What they found was that 9 instructional strategies produced the highest yielding gains in student achievement. While these findings are significant, it is important to remember that not there are not the only instructional strategies that should be used and that no instructional strategy works equally well in all situations. Additional notes if needed: (ES) or effect size expresses the increase or decrease in achievement of an experimental group (the group exposed to a specific instructional technique). These are measured in standard deviations (remember from stats classes 1 standard deviation above or below the mean is about 34% of your population). Percentile Gain were configured by McREL using a statistical conversion table. No. of ESs were the number of experimental studies that were examined for each strategy
Questions and Cues are both used to trigger prior knowledge. Activating prior knowledge is critical to learning of all types. Questions elicit from students what they already know about a topic. Cues involve hints about what students are about to experience.
Cues and questions are ways that a classroom teacher helps students use what they already know about a topic. Cues and questions are similar in that they both involve “hints” about what students are about to experience or already know about a topic. A teacher may cue the class by telling them they are going to watch a video about cells. Throughout the video, she may ask questions that elicit what they already know about the topic. Heart of classroom practice 80%… Teachers who thought they were asking 12-20 questions every half hour were actually asking 45-150 questions.
The research yielded 4 generalizations that can guide teachers in using cues and questions. Here are the 4 and then we’ll look at each in more detail.
For #1, often teachers structure questions around what is unusual or what they think students will find interesting instead of what is important. They do this thinking it will increase students’ interest on the topic. In reality, research indicates that just knowing more about a topic increases the interest level of most students. For #2, think of this in terms of Bloom’s taxonomy. Asking higher level questions (analysis, synthesis, evaluation) will promote thinking at higher and more in depth levels than asking lower level questions (knowledge, comprehension, application.) Most questions teachers ask are lower order in nature. There are many definitions of higher-level questions but they all have the common feature of requiring students to restructure information or apply knowledge in some way.
Review slide. Ask participants to give words or sentence starters that trigger each level. I. KNOWLEDGE who, where, describe, which one, what, how, define, what is the best one, why, match, choose, how much, when, select, omit, what does it mean II. COMPREHENSION own words, classify, which are facts, what does this mean,judge, is this the same as, give an example, infer, select the best definition, condense this paragraph, show, what would happen if, state in one word, indicate, explain what is happening, what part doesn't fit, tell, explain what is meant, what expectations are there, translate, read the graph/table, what are they saying, select, this represents what seems to be, match, is it valid that, what seems likely, explain, show in a graph/table, which statements support, represent, demonstrate, what restrictions would you add III. APPLICATION predict what would happen if, explain, choose the best statements that apply, identify the results of, judge the effects, select what would result, tell what would happen, tell how/when/where/why, tell how much change there would be
Review slide. Ask participants to give words or sentence starters that trigger each level. IV. ANALYSIS distinguish, what is the function of, identify, what's fact/opinion, what assumptions, what statement is relevant, what motive is there, related to/extraneous to/not applicable, what conclusions, what does author believe/assume, make a distinction,state the point of view of, what is the premise, what ideas apply, what ideas justify conclusion, what's the relationship between, the least essential statements are, what's the main idea/theme, what inconsistencies/fallacies, what literary form is used,what persuasive technique, implicit in the statement is V. SYNTHESIS create, how would you test, make up, tell, propose an alternative, compose, make, solve the following, formulate, do, plan, how else would you, choose,design, state a rule, develop VI. EVALUATION appraise, what fallacies/consistencies/inconsistencies appear, judge, which is more important/moral/better/logical/valid/ appropriate, criticize, find the errors, defend, compare
In looking at “wait time,” there are 3 different types: after a teacher speaks, after a student speaks, or before a teacher speaks. It not only increases student discourse in general but also promotes more student-to-student interaction. For generalization #4, we usually think of questions being posed after learning has taken place. Questions can be effective before a learning activity, as well, to establish a “mental set” with which students process the learning experience. Here, too, remember that even when used for pre-learning, higher level questions tend to produce deeper levels of learning.
Based on the generalizations made from the research, there are 3 recommendations for classroom practice that teachers should be implementing---using explicit cues and asking 2 types of questions---inferential and analytical.
Cues should be elicit and straightforward. They will give students a preview of what they are about to learn and will activate prior knowledge. Example: Senora Nona starts her 3 rd grade class by asking if anyone has a friend who is known for borrowing things. Those people, she says, are called pediguenos in Spanish or leeches, in English. Senora Nina then explains: We dedicate our lesson today to the pediguenos because we are going to learn how to use possessive adjectives, or adjetivos posesivos. We will learn and practice the possessive adjectives for you, tu, el, ella. For example, Pete doesn’t use his own car, he borrows his friend’s car. Now let’s say it in Spanish.
There are 2 types of questions we want to focus on: inferential and analytical.
Inferring involves going beyond the literal meaning of the text to derive what is not there but is implied. When you infer, you use the connections you have made and the information extracted from the text to form tentative theories and to create sensory images. “visualizing” like this makes reading come alive. You think you actually know the characters- how they look or sound. You imagine a setting and you feel you are there. You may feel empathy for the characters, sadness at tragic events, or anger at injustice- all because you understand the text beyond the literal level. Students learn to make inferences by reading meaningful texts that offer the opportunity for them to form such theories.
There are four categories of inferential questions that can be asked.
Facilitate activity and ask for volunteers to a question.
Now we are going to look at the 2 nd type of question: Analytical
Analysis skills are complex processes. These strategies take years to develop. Continue to develop these skills as adults. Guide students to think more analytically or critically about the text. The use of questions is one way to help develop this critical thinking skill. Prompt students to recall prior knowledge or the connections to their lives. Elicit emotional or aesthetic response. Encourage students to synthesize information to create new knowledge. Help students explore deeper meaning of texts. These questions promote understanding of different perspectives. They help students understand that there is no single correct answer but that all answers should be backed by evidence form the text.
Analytical questions can help students do 3 different types of things.
Facilitate activity. Have groups put on a chart and share with the class.
Review slide then ask question. Chart responses. Trainer notation: Answers will most likely be given that target different types of graphic organizers. If this is the case, when reviewing the 4 types of advance organizers, refer to this list and emphasize that graphic organizers are only one type of advance organizers.
Advance Organizers reveal what students already know and any misconceptions they may have. Should be used at the beginning of the year, beginning of a unit and beginning of a lesson. They should be provided for group projects, interactive lessons, lectures, homework assignments, class work assignments, and other content area instructional activities in almost every activity in the general education and the special education classroom.
The research yielded 4 generalizations that can guide teachers in using advance organizers. Here are the 4 and then we’ll look at each in more detail. Notice that the first 2 generalizations are the same as from cues and questions.
Just as in cues and questions… For #1, often teachers structure AOs around what is unusual or what they think students will find interesting instead of what is important. They do this thinking it will increase students’ interest on the topic. In reality, research indicates that just knowing more about a topic increases the interest level of most students. For #2, think of this in terms of Bloom’s taxonomy. Using AOs that target higher levels of thinking (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) will promote thinking at higher and more in depth levels than using AOs that require lower level thinking (knowledge, comprehension, application.)
By definition, AOs give students a way to organize information within a learning experience. Well organized information is infinitely more powerful than poorly organized information. Ie. An AO might work better to prep for a field trip rather than using an AO to prep for reading a well organized chapter with clear heading and subtitltes. For #4, there are different types of AOs, each with a different purpose, so let’s take a look at them.
The recommendation that has come from the McREL research regarding AOs is that teachers should use multiple types of AOs and 4 are specifically targeted. Be aware these aren’t the only types and there are literally hundreds of different types of formats that can be used.
Participants will be placed into expert teams by color of paper. Resources will be given based on color of paper. After product is completed by each person, get into groups based on the four colors. (groups of four) Graphic organizers will be given for all to take notes on. Each “expert” will share important information from their colored notes page for others to put on their graphic organizer. Rotate clockwise sharing information.
Expository AOs just describe new content. They can be written or oral, can include text and/or pictures. The purpose is to help students see patterns. As a reminder, with all AOs- should emphasize important content, not the strange or fantastic. Here is one example of a neuron that includes both text and a picture. Another example could be that a PE teacher wants to show an instructional video about playing cricket. She knows students will focus on peculiarities of the game and how it is different from the sports they know. To make sure they attend to the game, she gives them an expository AO- one that focuses on how to play the game , the equipment needed, number of players etc.
This type of AO helps students make personal, or real-world connections with the new content. Stories can make something distant or unfamiliar - such as a time in history, a scientific discovery, or a complex math concept- seem personal and familiar. Stories stimulate students’ thinking and helps them make personal connections to new information. Another example is suppose students in a social studies class are studying the concepts of perspective, motive or bias and how to interpret and use primary documents. The teacher might share a personal story about a particular motive or bias she has experienced in her life.
This is a powerful form of AO. Students are asked to focus on and note what stands out in headings, subheadings, and highlighted information. Expository information is especially good for skimming because textbooks, articles and informative texts commonly include headings, bold terms, pictures with captions, inset quotations, and other helpful clues about the information presented. Need to understand that headings, subheadings, bold terms- provide the outline of the content. Need practice using these text features.
Graphic organizers should be used when information is unfamiliar to students and when relationships among the pieces of information are complex. Present GOs with much if not all of the information filled in. Helps students develop familiarity with information and the relationships among the pieces of information before the formal presentation begins. If you feel students are able to understand new information on their own, you can provide a blank organizer. This provides students with conceptual hooks on which students can hang their ideas. Here is an example of a network tree where students identify a main idea and related facts.
Here are 2 other types of graphic organizers. There are hundreds of them (do an internet sometime on graphic organizer). Please note that while most of us were probably picturing graphic organizers when we began talking about advance organizers, GOs are only one type of AO.
Now that we have looked at using cues, questions, and advance organizers in a classroom, let’s summarize what we have learned. Facilitate activity.
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
Cues, Questions &Advance Organizers
Participant OutcomesParticipants will: Understand the purpose and importance of ques, questions, and advance organizers Identify ways to implement ques, questions, and advance organizers in the classroom Review examples of ques, questions, and advance organizers
Post a thought Work as a group at your table Take a sticky note and jot down all the Marzano strategies your group can recall. Listen to and view cues and questions to activate your prior knowledge.
Cues and Questions One strategy has 4 different forms: compare, contrast, create metaphors, create analogies. How can you use a strategy that deletes trivial and redundant material? When a student provides active participation how might this behavior be repeated? Reinforce the home school connection through… Graphic organizers Pair and share, knee to knee, who’s your shoulder partner? Describe what the learners will be able to do today and how well they achieved it afterwards. What strategy would involve inductive and deductive reasoning? Expository, narrative, skimming, and graphic
Average Percentile No. of Category Effect ESs Size (ES) GainIdentifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 31Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 179Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 0.80 29 21Homework and practice 0.77 28 134Nonlinguistic representations 0.75 27 246Cooperative learning 0.73 27 122Setting objectives and providing feedback 0.61 23 408Generating and testing hypotheses 0.61 23 63Questions-cues-advance organizers 0.59 22 1,251
How can I possibly remember all ofthose strategies?I saw Robin helping Nathancoach some gifted children.
Questions and CuesDiscussion questions:What makes a good question?How do you currently use cues in your classroom?
Cues and Questions Heart of classroom practice Account for 80% of what occurs in a classroom on a given day Involve explicit reminders/hints about what students are about to experience Activate background knowledge Aid students in process of filling in missing information
Research and Theory aboutQuestions and Cues Generalizations based on research: 2. Should focus on what is important not unusual. 3. Higher level questions produce deeper learning. 4. Increasing wait time increases depth of answers. 5. Questions are an effective tool even before a learning experience.
Research and Theory aboutQuestions and Cues Generalization #1: Should focus on what is important, not unusual. • Unusual may be interesting but can distract from what is important Generalization #2: Higher level questions produce deeper learning. • Causes students to restructure info
Sample Lower Level QuestioningBased on Blooms Taxonomy, Developed and Expanded by John Maynard I. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition) II. COMPREHENSION (translating, interpreting and extrapolating) III. APPLICATION (to situations that are new, unfamiliar or have a new slant for students)
Sample Higher Level Questioning IV. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts, forms) V. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) VI. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria, and state why)
Now You Practice… Think about a topic you teach. Write questions you could ask students that would engage the students in each of the 6 levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.
Research and Theory aboutQuestions and CuesGeneralization #3:Increasing wait time increases depth of answers. • Should be several seconds • Gives students more time to think • Increases discussion and interactionGeneralization #4:Questions are an effective tool even before a learning experience. • Develops framework
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onQuestions and Cues a. Use Explicit Cues b. Ask Questions that Elicit Inferences c. Use Analytic Questions
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onQuestions and Cuesa. Use Explicit Cues Preview of what about to learn Activates prior knowledge Should be straightforward Examples: Tell what lesson is about Tell what standards/benchmarks will be covered
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onQuestions and Cuesa. Ask Questions that Elicit Inferencesb. Use Analytic Questions
Two Categories of Questions Inferential Analytic Help students fill in Often require students gaps from a lesson, to use prior activity, reading knowledge in addition to new knowledge to analyze, critique information
Inferential Questions Answer is implied Read between the lines Student fills in gaps Use prior knowledge Use new knowledge
Inferential QuestionsFour categories:3. Things and people4. Actions5. Events6. States
1. Things and People What effect does the fairy godmother’s visit have on Cinderella’s life?
2. Actions How did Cinderella feel after the ball?
3. Events What is the significance of the ball?
4. States The fairy godmother changed Cinderella’s outside appearance. What changes probably occurred in the way she felt inside?
ActivityWith a partner, write 2 questions about one of the below topics that could be used to help students make inferences about the topic (can probe about things & people, actions, events, or state of being). Valentine’s Day Designing a Building Hypoglycemia Magnet
Two Categories of Questions Inferential Analytic Help students fill in Often require students gaps from a lesson, to use prior activity, reading knowledge in addition to new knowledge to analyze, critique information
Analytic Questions Require students to analyze and critique the information Require them to use prior knowledge Require them to use new knowledge Designed around highly analytic thinking and reasoning skills Have more than one answer
1. Analyzing Errors If you assume “good wins over evil” as the logic of this story, how might this reasoning be misleading? Use your knowledge of the world to guide your thinking.
2. Constructing Support You are Cinderella. What is your argument with your stepmother about why you should go to the ball?
3. Analyzing Perspectives Why would someone consider the stepmother to be good? What is your reasoning to support your answer?
Check Your UnderstandingCreate a Venn diagram with your table partners that shows similarities and differences between inferential and analytic questions.
Advance OrganizersAn Advance Organizer is an organizational framework teachers present to students prior to teaching new content to prepare them for what they are about to learn.Discussion question:When have you used advance organizers in your classroom?
When to use AdvanceOrganizers Group projects Interactive lessons Lectures Homework assignments Class work assignments Other content area instructional activities Almost every activity in the general education and special education classroom
Research and Theory aboutAdvance Organizers Generalizations based on research: 2. Should focus on what is important not unusual. 3. Higher level advance organizers produce deeper learning. 4. Most useful with information that is not well organized. 5. Different types produce different results.
Research and Theory aboutAdvance Organizers Generalization #1: Should focus on what is important not unusual. • Unusual may be interesting but can distract from what is important Generalization #2: Higher level advance organizers produce deeper learning. • Causes students to restructure info
Research and Theory aboutAdvance OrganizersGeneralization #3:Most useful with information that is not well organized. • Organizes information within a learning structureGeneralization #4:Different types produce different results. • 4 Types
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onAdvance Organizers Use all 4 types of advance organizers 1. Expository 2. Narrative 3. Skimming 4. Graphic Not the only types Advance organizers come in many formats
Jigsaw II Each group will research one of the advance organizers: expository, narrative, skimming, and graphic organizers. Each person in the group will have a product to share. (definition, examples, nonlinguistic) Use the graphic organizer to take notes.
Expository Describes content Written or oral Can include text and/or pictures Helps see patternsExample:Neurons are nerve cells that transmit nerve signals toand from the brain at up to 200 mph. The neuronconsists of a cell body (or soma) with branchingdendrites (signal receivers) and a projection called anaxon, which conduct the nerve signal.The axon, a long extension of a nerve cell, and takeinformation away from the cell body.Myelin coats and insulates the axon increasingtransmission speed along the axon.The cell body (soma) contains the neurons nucleus(with DNA and typical nuclear organelles). Dendritesbranch from the cell body and receive messages.
Narrative Story format Makes personal connections Makes seem familiarExample:Before beginning a unit about the experience of immigrant groups who moved to the U.S., Mr. Anderson told the story of his grandfather, who immigrated from Sweden.
Skimming Preview important information quickly by noting what stands out in headings and highlighted information Pre-reading questions or SQ3R (survey, question, read, recite, review) can be helpful before skimmingExample:When beginning a new lesson, gives students 60 seconds to skim an article paying close attention to headings, subheadings, and the first sentence of each paragraph.This helps students become aware of what information they will be learning when they read the article more carefully.
Graphic Organizers Type of nonlinguistic representation which visually represents what the students will learnExamples:
Graphic Organizers-More ExamplesFind words that rhyme:Inverted Triangle (going from general to specific):
Partner Activity Count off by 3’s In your group discuss: Teachers say they don’t have time to develop cues, questions, and advance organizers. What would you say to them? Person #3 rotate to a new group and summarize your group’s discussion. Then discuss:. How could you model the use of these 3 strategies? Person #2 rotate and summarize. Discuss question: What are “look fors” in the classroom for effective use of these strategies?
In conclusion Before learning new information, teachers should help students retrieve what they already know about a topic or “activate prior knowledge”. Cues, questions and advance organizers are three common ways that a classroom teacher helps students use what they already know about a topic to learn new information. Cues give hints of what is to be learned. Analytical and inferential questions asked of students before learning help fill in the gaps and provide a focus for learning. Narrative advance organizers, skimming, and graphic organizers help students focus on important information by providing a mental set.