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# Scientific method and si units

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### Scientific method and si units

1. 1. Scientific Method<br />
2. 2. Scientific Method<br />Systematic approach used in scientific studies<br />A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing a hypothesis, and formulating theories that are supported by data<br />
3. 3. Steps of the Scientific Method<br />• Observation<br />• Problem Statement <br />• Hypothesis Statement<br />• Experiment / Data Collection<br />• Conclusion Statement<br />
4. 4. Steps of the Scientific Method<br />
5. 5. Types of Observation<br />Qualitative Data and observations (QL)<br />Color, shape, odor, or other physical characteristics<br />Quantitative Data and observations (QN)<br />Numerical information such as temperature, pressure, volume, the quantity of a chemical formed<br />
6. 6.
7. 7.
8. 8.
9. 9. (PS)<br />
10. 10. Variable<br />What does variable mean?<br />To change…<br />
11. 11. Variables<br />Independent Variable (IV)<br />aka manipulated variable<br />Only ONE!!!<br />The one the INDividual (YOU) physically change/manipulate<br />Dependent Variable (DV)<br />aka the responding variable<br />Only ONE!!!<br />The one that changes (or you hope will change) when you change the IV<br />The one you are collecting data about/measuring<br />Constant Variables<br />MANY of these<br />All the things you want to keep the SAME (do NOT change)<br />
12. 12. Variables<br />You should be able to identify the IV and DV from your PS!!!!<br />
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14. 14.
15. 15. Formula: <br />If…(state what will be done to the IV), then…(state what is predicted to happen to the DV)<br />
16. 16. CLASS WORKName That Variable!Control (1):Constants(2) :Independent (1): Dependent (1):Hypotheses (1):<br />1. An experiment that tests how quickly different temperatures will dissolve sugar cubes. <br />2. An experiment that explores how different colors of light impact plant growth. <br />3. How does the temperature of a chemical reaction change over time? <br />
17. 17. Experiment<br />a planned way to test a hypothesis and find out the answer to the problem statement.<br />a way to collect data and determine the value of the DV.<br />compares the IV to the DV.<br />can only test one DV at a time and change one IV at a time<br />
18. 18. Experiment<br />Variables <br />Materials and Procedures<br />Data and Results Section<br />Include observations (QL and QN)<br />Pictures/tables/graphs/calculations <br />
19. 19. Why Do We Use Graphs? <br />Graphs help us visualize numerical data.<br />•There are several different types of graphs:<br />Bargraphs: compare multiple objects<br />Piegraphs: shows relationships of parts to a whole<br />Linegraphs: show the relationship between 2 variable<br />
20. 20. Types of Relationships (between variables)<br />Direct: as x increases y increases<br />Indirect: as x increases y decreases<br />Constant: as x increases y remains the same<br />
21. 21. Conclusion Statement <br />Do NOT use 1st person <br />Me, my, I, we, our, etc…<br />VERY Objective<br /> a summarization that presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, and states if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated)<br />Restate PS<br />Restate HYP<br />Summarize M&P<br />Analyze and explain data/results (tables, observations, pictures)<br />State whether HYP was correct or not and EXPLAIN why<br />Explain possible errors<br />Explain ways to improve experiment/research<br />Explain APPLICATION to biology and society <br />
22. 22. After we accept a hypothesis, experiment, and draw a conclusion…<br />Many conclusions that support each other make up a THEORY<br />Explanation supported by many, many conclusions<br />Many conclusions that support each other over a period of time<br />Atomic Theory<br />Theory of Relativity<br />CAN be DISPROVEN<br />“The world is flat”<br />SCIENTIFIC LAW<br />A relationship in nature that is supported by many, many experiments<br />No exceptions<br />Law of Gravity<br />
23. 23. SI Units<br />In science, we need to speak the same language<br />1795<br />French scientists develop metric system<br />1960<br />International committee meets to update the system and names it the “Systeme Internationale d’Unites” aka SI <br />
24. 24.
25. 25. SI Base Units<br />Seven SI base units<br />Base unit<br />A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world<br />
26. 26. SI Derived Units<br />Not all quantities can be measured with base units<br />More than one base unit can be used<br />Speed limit is measure in….<br />MPH<br />Miles per hour<br />Which is a combo of what base units?<br />Length and time<br />
27. 27. Derived Units<br />
28. 28. Common derived units we will use<br />Speed<br />Base unit of length and base unit of time<br />Meters/second<br />Volume<br />3 base units of length<br />Length x length x length<br />1 dm3 = 1 L<br />Density<br />Mass/volume<br />Ratio that compares mass of an object to its volume<br />g/cm3 or g/mL<br />
29. 29. Class Work!<br />Suppose a sample of aluminum is placed in a 25 mL- graduated cylinder containing 10.5 mL of water. The level of water rises 13.5 mL. Mass is 25 g. What is the density of the aluminum sample?<br />What is the volume of a sample that has a mass of 150 g and a density of 5 g/mL?<br />
30. 30. Prefixes Used with SI units<br />
31. 31.
32. 32. Kids Hate Doing Math Dittos Christmas Morning<br />King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk<br />
33. 33. Temperature<br />SI unit?<br />Kelvin<br />Our thermometers measure Celsius<br />To convert from Celsius to Kelvin<br />0o C + 273 = 273 K<br />To convert from Kelvin to Celsius<br />373 K - 273 = 100o C<br />