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Mendel 1


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Mendel 1

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  3. 3. Gregor Mendel<br />1822<br />Austrian monk<br />University of Vienna<br />In charge of the Garden<br />
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  5. 5. Parts of the plant<br />Female part-carpel (egg)<br />Male part-stamen-pollen (sperm)<br />Fertilization<br />Produces new cell which develops into an embryo and is enclosed by a seed <br />Self-pollinating<br />Contain male and female parts<br />Sperm cell in pollen fertilizes egg cells in flower<br />Offspring inherit all traits of parent<br />True breeding<br />Allowed to self pollinate<br />Tall plant<br />Green seeds<br />Cross Pollination<br />Cut off male parts of one plant so it only had eggs<br />Dusted it with pollen from a different plant<br />
  6. 6. Cross Pollination<br />Produces seeds that had two different parents<br />Mendel could now cross bred plants with different parents<br />
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  9. 9. Terms<br />Gene: chemical factors (sections of DNA) that determine specific traits<br />Trait: a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another. <br />Allelle: different forms of a gene (trait)<br />
  10. 10. Genotype:<br />genetic make-up of an organism (the two alleles an organism has inherited from each parent for a trait)<br />Phenotype:<br />physical characteristics or the OBSERVABLE version of the trait<br />
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  12. 12. Dominant<br />Allele for trait that will be expressed no matter what the other allele is (A)<br />Recessive<br />Allele for a trait that can only be expressed if dominant allele is ABSENT (a)<br />Heterozygous Dominant<br />Organism that has two different alleles for a trait<br />Aa<br />Homozygous (Dominant or Recessive)<br />Organism that has two IDENTICAL alleles for a trait<br />aa or AA<br />
  13. 13. Punnett Square<br />Diagram that shows possible genotypes and phenotypes <br />Probablity<br />
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  24. 24. Punnet Square<br />Hybrids<br />Offspring of crossing two parents with different versions of a trait<br />Ex. Tall with Short; Purple with White<br />Parents are the “P generation”<br />Offspring are the “F1 generation”<br />When two of the F1 plants are crossed, the offspring are referred to as the “F2 generation” <br />
  25. 25. Ratios<br />What is a ratio?<br />A comparison between multiple objects<br />Phenotypic ratios<br />Compares the number of different phenotypes for a cross<br /># of Dominant Phenotype : # of Recessive Phenotype<br />Genotypic ratios<br />Compares the number of different genotypes for a cross <br />3 possibilities # of DD : # of Dd : # of dd<br />Homozygous dominant DD<br />Heterozygous dominant Dd<br />Homozygous recessive dd<br />
  26. 26. What are the phenotypes of the F1 generation?<br />Probability of having a green pod?<br />Probability of having a yellow pod?<br />What are the genotypes for the F1 generation?<br />What are the phenotypes of the F2 generation?<br />Probability of having a green pod?<br />Probability of having a yellow pod?<br />What are the genotypes for the F2 generation?<br />
  27. 27. Probability<br />Def: The likelihood of an event happening<br />It’s a way to predict the average outcome of a large number of events<br />CANNOT predict the precise outcome of an event only the LIKELIHOOD of the event<br />Flip a coin<br />What is the probability of getting heads?<br />What is the probability of getting tails?<br />If you flip a coin 3 times…<br />What is the probability of getting heads?<br />What is the probability of getting tails?<br />
  28. 28. <ul><li>If you flip a coin two times, does the first flip effect what you are going to get in the second flip?
  29. 29. No…
  30. 30. One event does not effect another event’s probability
  31. 31. If there is a ¼ chance of having a white plant…the chances of having another white plant when crossing the plants again is still ¼
  32. 32. What are the chances of having 2 white plants after two fertilizations?
  33. 33. ¼ x ¼ = 1/16 </li></li></ul><li>Things to keep in mind…<br />Probability predicts the AVERAGE outcome of a LARGE number of events<br />Cannot predict a precise outcome<br />The larger the number of events the closer you will be to getting the expected results<br />