Introduction to biology


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Introduction to biology

  1. 1. Introduction to biology<br />
  2. 2. Biology<br /><ul><li>Bios-: greek for life
  3. 3. -logy: study of
  4. 4. A biologist uses the scientific method to study living things
  5. 5. Biology is the study of life
  6. 6. Zoology
  7. 7. Botany
  8. 8. Microbiology
  9. 9. Ecology
  10. 10. Marine Biology
  11. 11. Genetics
  12. 12. Cell biology
  13. 13. Anatomy and physiology
  14. 14. Paleontology </li></li></ul><li>So….What makes something “living”?<br />Made up of cells<br />Reproduce<br />Genetic code<br />Growth and development<br />Obtain and use materials (resources) and energy<br />Respond to their environment<br />Maintain a stable internal environment<br />As a group, they change over time<br />
  15. 15. Made Up of Cells<br />Cell<br />Collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier<br />Smallest structural unit of all living things<br />Prokaryotic cells<br />Cell without a nucleus, DNA is in cytoplasm<br />Eukaryotic Cells<br />Cell with a nucleus that contains the genetic material (DNA)<br />Unicellular<br />“uni-” means one<br />Organism that is made of one cell<br />Example: bacteria<br />Prokaryotic cells<br />Multi-cellular<br />“multi-” means many<br />Contain hundreds, thousands, even trillions of cells<br />Many cells work together to make the living organism function<br />Cells vary in size, shape and function<br />Example: plants and animals<br />
  16. 16. Ability to Reproduce<br />Asexual reproduction<br />Organism has single parent<br />Genetically identical to parent<br />Splits in half<br />Sexual reproduction<br />Cells from two different parents unite to form new organism<br />Increases genetic variety and survival of species<br />
  17. 17. Based on a Genetic Code<br />DNA nucleic acid that carries all the information about the organism<br />All living organisms have DNA, the “blue prints” of life<br />
  18. 18. Growth and Development<br />Growth means increase in size, such as certain bacteria<br />Development refers to cells dividing to <br />Includes periods of rapid growth and dramatic change<br />Sometimes different stages (think caterpillar)<br />During development, cells multiply and are assigned specific functions and roles within the multi-cellular organism…DIFFERENTIATION<br />
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  21. 21. Obtain and Use materials and Energy<br />Obtain energy by taking in resources<br />Plants-sunlight<br />Lizard-insects<br />Metabolism<br />Combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials to carry out life processes<br />
  22. 22. Respond to their Environment<br />Stimulus<br />A signal to which an organism responds<br />External Stimuli<br />From environment outside organism<br />Example- water in soil stimulates germination<br />Internal Stimuli <br />Comes from inside an organisms body<br />Low sugar levels in blood will stimulate you to feel hungry<br />
  23. 23. Maintain a Stable internal environment<br />Homeostasis<br />When organisms maintain a stable internal environment that is different from the external environment<br />Examples: shivering and sweating<br />
  24. 24. As a group, they change over time<br />Evolution<br />Process of change<br />When a group of organisms change over time<br />Could occur over hundreds or millions of years<br />Adaptation<br />An inherited trait that’s helps an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment<br />Over a short period of time<br />Natural selection<br />The most beneficial traits for a specific group of organisms is passed on<br />Organisms that have that specific trait will live longer and produce more offspring than those who do not have it<br />The mechanism by which evolution occurs<br />
  25. 25. Levels of Organization<br />Molecular<br />Cellular<br />Groups of Cells<br />Organism<br />Population<br />Community<br />Ecosystem<br />Biosphere<br />
  26. 26. Levels of Organization<br />Molecular<br />DNA/RNA and other molecules<br />Cellular<br />Different cells<br />Groups of Cells<br />(cellstissuesorgansorgansystemsorganism)<br />Organism<br />A single species<br />Population<br />A group of the same species<br />Community<br />Many different groups of species and how they interact with each other in a specific area<br />Ecosystem<br />All the living and nonliving interactions in an area<br />Biosphere<br />How all the different parts (biomes) of Earth come together<br />Bio- means life<br />Sphere- earth<br />Life is found on land, in air, and in water<br />“living Earth”<br />
  27. 27. Life’s Diversity of Species <br />Plants and animals…is there only one type?<br />Species<br />A distinct life form<br />Biologists have identified more than one million species<br />There are various estimates to the actual amount<br />New species are discovered daily<br />5000 sp. of bacteria, 8600 sp. of birds, 30,000 sp. of fishes, 100,000 sp. of fungi, 280,000 sp. of plants and 1 million different species of….<br />INSECTS<br />
  28. 28. Domains<br />Broadest category of classification<br />Three main domains<br />Domain Archea: <br />unicellular prokary. That live in extreme environments (very hot or very cold, extremely acidic or basic))<br />Domain Bacteria: All other unicellular prokary.<br />Domain Eukarya: Organism made up of eukary. Cells<br />Includes 4 kingdoms: Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals<br />
  29. 29. How do we organize all these species?<br />We categorize all the different species in to broader categories<br />From broadest to most specific:<br />Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (Linnaean System of Classification)<br />Binomial nomenclature<br />BREAK UP THE WORD…<br />BI-TWO, NOMIAL-NAME, NOMENCLATURE-NAMING SYSTEM<br />This is how we identify a species<br />The African lion is called Pantheraleo<br />What’s the genus?<br />Panthera<br />What is the species?<br />Pantheraleo(you say both genus and species)<br />Classification<br />