Intro to cellular resp


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Intro to cellular resp

  1. 1. Energy and Cellular Respiration<br />Chapter 7<br />
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration vs. Photosynthesis<br />Formulas<br />
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration vs. Photosynthesis<br />Organelles<br />Mitochondria<br />Eukaryotic cells<br />Structure is key<br />Two membranes<br />Space between membranes<br />Matrix makes up inner membrane<br />Lots of enzymes found here for chemical reactions<br />Complex folding=many sites for reactions to take place<br />Maximizes ATP production<br />Chloroplast<br />More about this one later…<br />
  4. 4. Energy<br />Heat (thermal)<br />Light (solar)<br />Electrical<br />What carries energy?<br />Electrons (little energy packets)<br />Negatively charged particle<br />Involved in making bonds between atoms<br />Electromagnetic spectrum<br />
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  6. 6. How is Energy Transferred?<br />Think food chain!<br />First Law of Thermodynamics aka the Law of Conservation of Energy<br />E cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred (converted)<br />
  7. 7. Kinetic vs. Potential<br />Energy of motion<br />Anything moving or in motion<br />Ex.<br />Climbing stairs<br />Leg muscles working<br />Stored energy due to an objects position or arrangement<br />As you climb up, you are getting higher, more gravitational pull, increase potential E<br />
  8. 8. Two Types of Kinetic Energy<br />Directed kinetic energy<br />Ex. Your body as it moves down slide<br />Random kinetic energy of molecular motion<br />Thermal energy<br />Ex. When your body collides with water. Air and water molecules are forced to move and collide at random, transferring energy<br />
  9. 9. Thermal Energy<br />Created from Random molecular motion<br />“Heat” is thermal energy that is transferred from warmer object to cooler object<br />
  10. 10. So exactly what happens as you go down the slide?<br />As you climb up the slideKinetic E<br />When you reach top of slidepotential E<br />As you slide downdirected kinetic E<br />When you hit water and stopRandom kinetic E of molecular motion<br />
  11. 11. You cannot retrieve thermal energy, so you must get new source of energy to climb back up the slide<br />What do you do?<br />
  12. 12. Eat food!<br />Food is composed of organic compounds<br />Carbohydrates<br />Fats <br />Proteins<br />All rich in E<br />These organic compounds contain a form of potential energy we call<br />CHEMICAL ENERGY<br />
  13. 13. Organic compounds<br />Potential to do work is in the arrangement of atoms in the molecules<br />Amount of potential energy depends on the structure of the molecules<br />When you break a bond, you release E<br />Energy now available for muscles to do work<br />Structures of…<br />Proteins<br />Carbohydrates<br />Fats<br />
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  15. 15. Cells and Cars use Combustion<br />Cells<br />Glucose<br />Oxygen<br />Energy to do work<br />Transport, mechanical, chemical<br />Releases carbon dioxide and water<br />Cars<br />Hydrocarbons (in gasoline)<br />Oxygen<br />Energy to do mechanical work<br />Releases carbon dioxide and water<br />
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  17. 17. calorie <br />Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1*C<br />Very tiny<br />Not practical to measure energy in food<br />Express in kilocalories (kcal), or Calories, what is on the nutrition label<br />KHDmdcm<br />
  18. 18. Burning food…<br />Changes chemical energy to thermal energy (releases heat)<br />Measure increase of water temperature and definition of calorie to find out how much chemical energy is in food<br />
  19. 19. Practice problem<br />If a peanut is burned and the temperature of 1 kilogram of water is raised by 8*C, how many calories are in the peanut?<br />How many Calories (kcal)?<br />How many calories?<br />
  20. 20. Find the amount of calories in each food and which provides the most energy1 2 3<br />