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Human population Ecology


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Human population Ecology

  1. 1. Ch 5.<br />Human Population<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. How has human population grown?<br />Slowly over time<br />Scarce food and incurable disease<br />Death rate high<br />Families had many childern<br />500 years ago<br />Raid growth<br />Why?<br />Agriculture, industrial; revolution, better food supply, shipping methods improved, improved sanitation, healthcare, improved medicine<br />Led to expanded human growth<br />
  4. 4. Science Behind Human Population<br />Thomas Malthus<br />English Economist<br />Human population cannont grow exponentially<br />Limits: Famine, disease, war<br />
  5. 5. Demography<br />Scientific study of human population<br />Study a variety of social and economic factors that effect human population<br />Examines characteristics of human population and attempts to explain how and why human population changes over time<br />
  6. 6. Things that help predict different population growth rates<br />Birth rate <br />Death rate<br />Age structure<br />
  7. 7. Hypothesis<br />These countries have completed a “demographic transition”, a dramatic change in birth and death rates<br />Historically: humans have high birth and death rates<br />Now: High birth rate and LOW death rate<br />Because of better conditions of living<br />
  8. 8. Demographic Transition<br /><ul><li>Dramatic change in birth rates and death rates
  9. 9. Low Death rate, High Birth rate
  10. 10. From 1760 to 1910
  11. 11. Society modernizes
  12. 12. Increase level of education
  13. 13. Raise standars of living
  14. 14. Families have fewer children
  15. 15. Birth rate decreases
  16. 16. Population growth slows
  17. 17. Demographic transition complete when:
  18. 18. Birth rate falls to meet death rate and population growth stops
  19. 19. Only complete in a few countries
  20. 20. India and China high birth rate</li></li></ul><li>Age Structure<br />Population depends partly on how many people of different ages make up a population<br />Age-structure diagrams<br />Population profiles used to predict future population growth<br />Show population of a country broken down by gender and age group<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Age structure in US<br />Equal # of people in each age group<br />Slow and steady growth rate for near future<br />Age Structure in Nigeria <br /><ul><li>More young children than teenagers
  23. 23. More teenagers than adults
  24. 24. Population will double in 30 years</li></li></ul><li>
  25. 25. Controlling Human Population<br />India<br />Compulsory sterilization<br />China<br />Family planning program<br />Benefits and bonuses<br />Forced abortions<br />
  26. 26. Predicting Future Population Growth<br />Many factors<br />Age structure of countries<br />Prevalence of life threatening diseases<br />By 2050<br />9 billion<br />Growth will level off or decrease if countries growing rapidly go through demographic transition<br />
  27. 27. Lower growth rate means population growth is slowing by it is STILL growing<br />How does this effect environment?<br />Ecologists predict that if this growth does not slow even more there will be Serious damage to <br />Environment<br />Global economy<br />Other ecologists predict that science, technology, and changes in society will control those negative impacts on economy and environment<br />