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Forensic science intro


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Forensic science intro

  1. 2. <ul><li>Forensics  derived from the Latin word forensis, meaning forum, a public place used in Roman times by senators to debate and hold judicial proceedings </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>The study and application of science to matters of law </li></ul><ul><li>Examines the associations between people, places, things and events involved in crimes </li></ul><ul><li>AKA criminalistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The examination of physical evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence: anything that tends to establish OR disprove a fact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testimony </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>documents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Forensic science is the application of natural sciences to matters of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, forensic science draws upon physics, chemistry, biology, and other scientific principles and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the recognition , identification , individualization , and evaluation of physical evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic scientists present their findings as expert witnesses in the court of law. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Job description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study evidence found at the crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ID object, its origin, and how it got to the crime scene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At trial, present data, weighs evidence, gives impartial opinion in court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performs scientific research and trains other scientists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>What do you think is realistic or unrealistic about the forensic science that is represented in the media? </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>A recent phenomenon, creating elevated standards and heightened expectations in the minds of jurors and others of the ability of real-life forensic science, that arose from television shows like CSI, which can distort the reality of the science. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Crime labs are well equipped with the latest high-tech instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Crime scene investigators process the crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime scene investigators know and do everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes can be solved within the hour with high-tech equipment </li></ul><ul><li>DNA can solve most crimes </li></ul><ul><li>All cases can be solved with high-tech science </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic science results are never wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic science is glamorous </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Juries more informed about how science is used in analyzing evidence…good but unreasonable expectations </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical evidence that jurors who watch CSI influence the outcome but prosecutors have to now explain why certain evidence is not presented </li></ul><ul><li>Criminals are becoming more careful…wearing gloves, washing up, burning evidence…however destroying evidence also leaves clues and it is very difficult to not leave detectable clues </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in number of people pursuing careers as forensic scientists </li></ul><ul><li>More “expert for hire” junk scientists available…similar to ambulance chasing lawyers </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Used to examine evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public funded (federal, state or local) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by police, prosecutors and other law enforcement agencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privately funded crime labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charge a fee for services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Physical science unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines drugs, glass, paint, blood spatter patterns, and other trace physical evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses chemistry, physics, and geology </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Firearms unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine tool marks, weapons, firearms and bullets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Ballistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science that deals with motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles, specifically firearms and bullets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Document Analysis Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine handwriting, typewriting, word processing and computer application, papers, and inks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses chromatography for ink analysis </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Biology Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze body fluids, DNA, blood factors, hair, fibers, and plant life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Biology, biochemistry and microbiology </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Forensic photography </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Latent fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>Polygraph Unit </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of remains such as bones and decomposed bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Odontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine bite marks and dental identification of corpses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigates sudden, violent and unexplained death (medical examiner) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of soil and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental science </li></ul><ul><li>Entomology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of insects, useful in decomposed bodies (time of death and movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palynology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of pollen and spores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voiceprint analysis </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Definition of Agency </li></ul><ul><li>What agency does </li></ul><ul><li>Brief history of agency </li></ul><ul><li>Role of agency in forensic science </li></ul><ul><li>How to apply for the agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources, headquarters, web link, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 cases in which the agency utilized forensic science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief description of case, any important branches of forensics utilized in the case, outcome of the case, how forensic science helped resolve the case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any pertinent information about the agency </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint presentation and hardcopy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise, Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everyone in group must present </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>FBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the largest crime lab in the world </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>DEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug enforcement agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 crime labs across the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate major illicit drug activity in and outside the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May also aid local law enforcement </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>ATF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Bureau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 regional labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with crimes involving alcohol, weapons, explosives, tobacco, and organized crime </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>IRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Revenue Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained by the Department of Treasury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in questioned documents </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>USPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Postal service has their own lab for crimes committed through the mail </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>US Fish and Wildlife Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain their own lab for crimes committed in national parks as well as crimes involving the animals, such as poaching and endangered species </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 secret service labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One guards against counterfeiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lab provides research for executive protection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Early 1900’s </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Believed criminal should be connected to the crime by trace evidence collected at the crime scene </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whenever 2 objects come into contact, there is a transfer of material. The methods of detection may not be sensitive enough to demonstrate this or the decay rate may be too rapid that all evidence or transfer has vanished after a given amount of time. None the less, the transfer has taken place.” </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>1.You are sitting at your desk. What are you in contact with? What possible transfer of material could have taken place? Make a list. How could you have prevented any transfer if you had thought about it first? What transferred material could be traced back to you directly and what units of a crime lab would be used to trace it back to you? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Think about when you came to school today. Did you leave any evidence that you were here other than being observed by others (eye witnesses)? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Is it difficult not to leave a trace? And, after the fact, is there lots to worry about from leaving evidence of your presence? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do you think premeditated contact can diminish identifiable transfers? Give some examples of where destroying evidence could leave more that could identify you. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Observe problem or questioned evidence and collected data </li></ul><ul><li>Make hypothesis or possible solution to the problem based on the observations, given a directed work plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use inductive reasoning, experience, and imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine, test, and analyze to support or refute hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Use deductive reasoning to make a determination as to the significance of the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and verify all evidence and determine a conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This step is important because it determines the liberty of a person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All possible errors must be stated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration must be given to standardization, reproducibility, validity, reliability, and accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will lead the scientist to a thoery or opinion they must present in court </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Outline the scientific method utilized in the episode </li></ul><ul><li>List each unit of the forensic lab that is used throughout the episode </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is realistic and what seems unrealistic in this episode. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Investigative teams shall consist of 4-5 members </li></ul><ul><li>Create a crime scene story with at least one victim, four suspects and four key pieces of evidence obtained at the crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that the pieces of evidence must be able to be “testable” </li></ul><ul><li>Once your team has developed a rough draft of you crime scene story, type it up on the computer and save. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the scientific method for each piece of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>You must utilize at least five different branches of the crime lab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next to the test/evidence list the branch that would be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On a separate sheet of paper, list the culprit as well as how he was linked to the crime with the evidence. </li></ul>