Proteins: Enzymes<br />What is a chemical reaction?<br />Do they happen on their own?<br />If we stare at the piece of pap...
Examples of exothermic reactions:<br />Digestion of food releases energy<br />All combustion reactions (fires)<br />C + O2...
Endothermic Reactions<br />the reactants have less potential energy than do the products. Energy must be input in order to...
Exothermic Reactions<br />the reactants have more potential energy than the products have. The extra energy is released to...
Enzymes<br />Enzyme<br />Catalyst<br />Anything that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the ACTIVATION ENERGY<br...
Factors that Effect the Rate of Reactions<br />Temperature<br />Hot<br />Breaks bonds that give proteins its tertiary stru...
Acetylcholinesterase<br />catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitteracetylcholine at several types of synapses as wel...
Lock and Key Model<br />
Class work! Label Each box!<br />2.    <br />3.    <br />4.    <br />1.    <br />5.    <br />
1.   <br />Class Work!Label Boxes!<br />2.   <br />3.   <br />4.   <br />5.   <br />
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Enzymes

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Enzymes

  1. 1. Proteins: Enzymes<br />What is a chemical reaction?<br />Do they happen on their own?<br />If we stare at the piece of paper, are we going to be able to make the oxygen molecules in the air collide with the cellulose in the paper?<br />What do we need to do?<br />What are reactants?<br />What are products?<br />
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  3. 3. Examples of exothermic reactions:<br />Digestion of food releases energy<br />All combustion reactions (fires)<br />C + O2 CO2+ E<br />Adding an alkali metal to water<br />2 Na + 2 H2O2 NaOH + H2+ E<br />Condensation of water<br />Explosion of bombs<br />Examples of endothermic reactions:<br />Melting of ice absorbs energy<br />Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water( the essence of commercial cold packs)<br />
  4. 4. Endothermic Reactions<br />the reactants have less potential energy than do the products. Energy must be input in order to raise the particles up to the higher energy level.<br />Energy + A + B --> AB<br />
  5. 5. Exothermic Reactions<br />the reactants have more potential energy than the products have. The extra energy is released to the surroundings.<br /> <br />A + B --> AB + Energy<br />
  6. 6. Enzymes<br />Enzyme<br />Catalyst<br />Anything that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the ACTIVATION ENERGY<br />Activ. E: energy required for a chem. Rxn to start making products<br />used to regulatethe rate (speed) of chemical reactions<br />Protein that helps speed up a reaction that occurs in a biological system<br />Name of enzymes end in –ASE<br />all enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes<br />each chemical reaction in an organism requires its own specific enzyme<br />enzymes are never changed by their reactions!<br />Substrate<br />Molecule/compound that attaches to enzyme<br />Active Site<br />Specific location on enzyme for substrate to attach<br />Where the enzymatic reaction occurs <br />Enzyme-substrate complex<br />When substrate binds to active site of enzyme<br />Products<br /> molecules produced at the end of an enzymatic reaction<br />
  7. 7. Factors that Effect the Rate of Reactions<br />Temperature<br />Hot<br />Breaks bonds that give proteins its tertiary structure DENATURES<br />Cold<br />Slow down chemical reaction (formation of enzyme substrate complex)<br />pH<br />Acids and bases produce OH- and H+ ions<br />too many ions are present, the enzyme may be denatured (twisted and pulled so out of shape that it can no longer function)<br />Inhibitors<br />Non-competitive<br />react with portions of the active site, changing of its shape<br />Allosteric Inhibitors<br />Change shape of the enzyme<br />Attach to regulatory site (not active site) and change the shape of the entire enzyme (specifically the active site)<br />Competitive<br />look like substrate, bind to active site, but do not make the intended product<br />
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  9. 9. Acetylcholinesterase<br />catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitteracetylcholine at several types of synapses as well as at the neuromuscular junction — the specialized synapse that triggers the contraction of skeletal muscle. <br />One molecule of acetylcholinesterase breaks down 25,000 molecules of acetylcholine each second<br />makes possible the rapid "resetting" of the synapse for transmission of another nerve impulse. <br />
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  11. 11. Lock and Key Model<br />
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  14. 14. Class work! Label Each box!<br />2. <br />3. <br />4. <br />1. <br />5. <br />
  15. 15. 1. <br />Class Work!Label Boxes!<br />2. <br />3. <br />4. <br />5. <br />

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