Ecology 3 energy and ecology ecological pyramids

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Ecology 3 energy and ecology ecological pyramids

  1. 1. ENERGY and ECOLOGY:<br />Ecological Pyramids<br />
  2. 2. Productivity of Ecosystems<br />Energy is the currency of ecosystem<br />Most energy is reflected back into space or is absorbed by atmosphere<br />Only about 1% of sun light that reaches producers is captured by photosynthesis<br />Producers convert sun (radiant) E into chemical E that is stored in organic compounds (glucose)<br />This energy captured by producers enables producers to make billions of kg of organic matter (BIOMASS) each year <br />
  3. 3. Primary Productivity<br />Rate at which producers in an ecosystem build biomass<br />Set the energy budget for ecosystem<br />Determines maximum amt of E available to all higher trophic levels in ecosystem<br />We look at “net productivity”<br />Total amt of organic material produced minus the amount used by the producers themselves<br />
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  5. 5. Three Types of Pyramids Represent Trophic Levels in Ecology <br />Pyramids of Energy<br />Pyramids of Biomass<br />Pyramids of Numbers<br />
  6. 6. Pyramid of Energy<br />Aka food pyramid<br />Energy flow thru trophic levels<br />Primary producers covert 1% of energy from sun<br />Only 10% of energy from one trophic level is passes onto the next<br />The other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environment<br />So much energy required to maintain an organism<br />Limited to 3 or 4 steps<br />Cannot be inverted<br />Emphasizes E LOSS b/t trophic levels<br />
  7. 7. Energy Pyramid<br />
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  10. 10. Pyramid of Biomass<br />Total dry weight of living tissue at each trophic level<br />kg of living tissue/ area<br />Usually follows traditional narrowing form of pyramid<br />May be inverted<br />Ex. Aquatic ecosystems<br />Zooplankton consume phytoplankton very fast that their biomass actually ends up being larger <br />
  11. 11. Biomass Pyramid<br />
  12. 12. Ecological Pyramids of Biomass<br />
  13. 13. Inverted Biomass Pyramid<br />
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  16. 16. Pyramid of Numbers<br />Show the number of organisms at each trophic level in ecosystem<br />Producers at the bottom, higher trophic levels above<br />Not always a perfect pyramid<br />Exception is when small organisms eat larger one (insects eating a tree)<br />
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  20. 20. Pyramid of Numbers vs. Biomass<br />Bluebird<br />Bluebird<br />
  21. 21. Ladybirds<br />Arthropods<br />
  22. 22. Arthropods feed on tiny algae. Sardines feed on tiny arthropods. Dolphins feed on sardines.<br />Antelope feed on grass. Lions feed on antelope. Fleas live on lions and suck their blood.<br />Greenflies feed on rose bushes. Ladybirds feed on greenflies. Swallows feed on ladybirds.<br />Zebras feed on long grass. Ticks suck the blood of zebras. Birds sit on the zebras’ backs and eat the ticks.<br />

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