Community interactions and sucession revised


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Community interactions and sucession revised

  1. 1. Community Interactions<br />
  2. 2. Quick Review<br /><ul><li>What is community?
  3. 3. What is population?</li></li></ul><li>Community Interactions<br />Powerfully affect an ecosystem<br />Include:<br />Competition<br />Predation<br />Symbiosis<br />
  4. 4. Competition<br />When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time<br />Resource any necessity to life<br />Plants and animals compete<br />Winner and losers<br />
  5. 5. Interspecific competition<br />Competition between two or more speciess<br />When 2 or more species rely on same limited resource in a community<br />Ex. Garden plants and weeds<br />Ex. Grasshoppers and bison<br />Ex. Lynx and foxes<br />Ex. African savannah<br />
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  7. 7. Niche<br />Each species unique living arrangement in a community<br />“Role”<br />Think about a specific position player on a team i.e. pitcher on a baseball team<br />Ex. Lizards in a rainforest<br />Includes:<br />Habitat<br />Food sources<br />Time of day organism is most active<br />
  8. 8. Rules, rules, rules<br />Fundamental rule in ecology<br />Competitive Exclusion Principle<br />Russian biologist G.F. Gause<br />Paramecium caudatum vs. Paramecium aurelia<br />Separately, both thrive in a culture<br />P. aurelia could gather food more quickly than the P. caudatum, therefore, if they are grown together, P. aurelia will thrive while P. caudatum will die out<br />2 species so similar in requirements that the same resource limits both population’s growth, and one species may succeed over another<br />No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat and the same time<br />Prevents un necessary competition<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Competitive Exclusion:The Ciliate Paramecium over 24 d<br />Grown inSeparateFlasks<br />Grown inthe SameFlask<br />
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  15. 15. Predation<br />Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism<br />Predator<br />Organism that does the killing and eating<br />Prey<br />Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim)<br />
  16. 16. Predator Adaptations<br />Speed<br />Agility<br />Coloring/camouflage to ambush prey<br />Packs/teams<br />Ex. Wolves<br />Acute senses<br />Ex. Rattle snake heat sensor organs<br />Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Camouflage Assists Predators<br />(b)<br />(a)<br />Frogfish<br />Cheetah<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Cryptic Coloration(Camouflage)<br />To avoid detection by predators, some animals have evolved to resemble objects such as bird droppings, leaves, or thorns <br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Camouflage by Blending in<br />Nightjar (bird)<br />Sand dab (fish)<br />
  20. 20. Chapter 27<br />20<br />A Plant That Mimics a Rock<br />Cactus<br />
  21. 21. Prey adaptations<br />Safe locations<br />Flee<br />Coloring/camouflage to hide<br />Defensive coloration (Cryptic coloration and Aposematic coloration)<br />“warning coloration”<br />Mimicry (Batesian and Mullerian)<br />Organisms imitate dangerous organisms by appearance and actions<br />Hawk moth larva<br />Plants<br />Thorns, spines, poisonous chemicals<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Cryptic Coloration:Camouflage byResembling Specific Objects<br />Moth<br />Leafy Sea Dragon-sea leaves/weed<br />droppings<br />Treehoppers- leaves<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Aposematic coloration:Warning Coloration-many organisms that are poisonous develop bright coloration-predators tend to avoid things with bright colors<br />
  24. 24. Mullerian mimicry<br />Two distasteful/unpalatable animals resemble each other<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Batesian Mimicry:Protection Through Mimicry<br />Snowberry flies avoid jumping spider predation by mimicking them both visually and behaviorally<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Visual and Behavioral Mimicry<br />(b)<br />(a)<br />
  27. 27. Chapter 27<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Protection Through Mimicry<br />Some animals deter predators by employing startle coloration<br />Have spots that resemble eyes of a large predator<br />
  29. 29. Chapter 27<br />29<br />Startle Coloration<br />Peacock moth<br />Swallowtail butterfly caterpillar<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />Chemical Warfare<br />Both predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense <br />Spiders and poisonous snakes use venom to paralyze their prey and deter predators <br />Many plants have evolved chemicals to deter herbivores <br />Bombardier beetle sprays hot chemicals from its abdomen<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Chemical Warfare<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Coevolutionary Adaptations<br />Plants have evolved a variety of chemicals to deter herbivores<br />Example: the toxic and distasteful chemicals in milkweed <br />Some animals evolve ways to detoxify these chemicals, allowing them to eat the plants<br />Plants may then evolve other toxic substances <br />
  33. 33. Chapter 27<br />33<br />The monarch butterfly uses deterrent chemicals of milkweed, acquired by a feeding caterpillar, to make itself distasteful to its predators<br />
  34. 34. Symbiosis<br />Any relationship where two species live closely together <br />Symbiosis literally means “living together”<br />3 main types<br />Parasitism<br />Mutualism<br />commensalism<br />
  35. 35. What type of relationship is this?<br />Who is helping who?<br />
  36. 36. Mutualism<br />Both species benefit from the relationship<br />A Happy couple<br />Flowers and bees<br />Flowers need bees for pollination, bees need flowers nectar<br />
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  40. 40. What type of relation ship is going on here?<br /><ul><li>Who is helping who?</li></li></ul><li>Commensalism<br />One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped<br />One-sided<br />Rare in nature<br />Food or shelter<br />Barnacles on whale<br />Seaweed on back of crab <br />
  41. 41. What type of interaction is going on here?<br />
  42. 42. Parasitism<br />One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it<br />Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism<br />Host<br />Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite<br />Parasite<br />Organism that gets its nutrients from the host<br />Do they want to kill their host?<br />No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way<br />
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  47. 47. Chapter 27<br />48<br />Symbiosis<br />
  48. 48. Recap<br />What are the three types of interactions in a community?<br />Competition<br />Predation<br />Symbiosis<br />What types do we have?<br />Mutualism<br />Commensalism<br />Parasitism<br />
  49. 49. Ecological Succession<br />Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time?<br />What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems?<br />Natural and unnatural<br />Quickly and slowly<br />
  50. 50. Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances. <br />As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change<br />
  51. 51. Ecological Succession<br />Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time <br />Physical environment<br />Natural disturbance<br />Human disturbance<br />
  52. 52. Primary Succession<br />Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists <br />Volcanic eruptions<br />Glaciers melting<br />
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  55. 55. Stages of Primary Succession<br />Start with no soil, just ash and rock<br />First species to populate this area<br />“pioneer species”<br />For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz)<br />Lichens made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock<br />When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow<br />
  56. 56. Secondary Succession<br />Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil<br />Natural <br />hurricane<br />fires<br />Human disturbances<br />Farming<br />Forest clearing<br />
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  62. 62. Succession in Marine Ecosystems<br />Deep and dark<br />Can succession happen?<br />1987 dead whale off of California<br />Unique community of organisms living in remains<br />Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem<br />Whale-fall community<br />
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  64. 64. Whale-Fall Succession<br />Begins when large whale dies<br />Sinks to barren ocean floor<br />Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community<br />Amphipods<br />Hagfish<br />sharks<br />After a year, most tissues have been eaten<br />Now, second small community of organisms live here<br />Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water<br />Small fishes<br />Crabs<br />Snails<br />worms<br />Only skeleton remains…<br />Third community moves in<br />Heterotrophic bacteria<br />Decompose oil in bones release of chemical compounds<br />Who uses these chemical compounds?<br />Chemoosynthetic autotrophs<br />In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria<br />
  65. 65. Human Activity and Species Diversity<br />Land clearing<br />Farmland<br />Diverse forest replaced with single crop<br />Decreases species diversity<br />Introduced species<br />Humans move a species from its native land to a new location, intentionally or accidentally <br />
  66. 66. Study Intro to Ecology and Community Interactions<br />Teacher,<br />