Community Interactions And Sucession


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Community Interactions And Sucession

  1. 1. Community Interactions
  2. 2. QUICK REVIEW <ul><li>What is community? </li></ul><ul><li>What is population? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Community Interactions <ul><li>Powerfully affect an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Competition <ul><li>When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource  any necessity to life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals compete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winner and losers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Interspecific competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition between same two species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When 2 or more species rely on same limited resource in a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. African savannah </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Rules, rules, rules <ul><li>Fundamental rule in ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Exclusion Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian biologist G.F. Gause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paramecium caudatum vs. Paramecium aurelia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 species so similar in requirements that the same resource limits both population’s growth, and one species may succeed over another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat and the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents competition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Niche <ul><li>Each species unique living arrangement in a community </li></ul><ul><li>“ Role” </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Lizards in a rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day organism is most active </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Predation <ul><li>Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism </li></ul><ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that does the killing and eating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 15. Predator Adaptations <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Agility </li></ul><ul><li>Coloring/camouflage to ambush prey </li></ul><ul><li>Packs/teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Wolves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acute senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Rattle snake heat sensor organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison </li></ul>
  10. 16. Prey adaptations <ul><li>Safe locations </li></ul><ul><li>Flee </li></ul><ul><li>Coloring/camouflage to hide </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive coloration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ warning coloration” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mimicry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms imitate dangerous organisms by appearance and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hawk moth larva </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorns, spines, poisonous chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  11. 22. Symbiosis <ul><li>Any relationship where two species live closely together </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis literally means “living together” </li></ul><ul><li>3 main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commensalism </li></ul></ul>
  12. 23. What type of relationship is this? <ul><li>Who is helping who? </li></ul>
  13. 24. Mutualism <ul><li>Both species benefit from the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy couple </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers and bees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers need bees for pollination, bees need flowers nectar </li></ul></ul>
  14. 27. What type of relation ship is going on here? <ul><li>Who is helping who? </li></ul>
  15. 28. Commensalism <ul><li>One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped </li></ul><ul><li>One-sided </li></ul><ul><li>Food or shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Barnacles on whale </li></ul>
  16. 29. Ants and aphids
  17. 31. What type of interaction is going on here?
  18. 32. Parasitism <ul><li>One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that gets its nutrients from the host </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do they want to kill their host? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way </li></ul></ul>
  19. 37. Recap <ul><li>What are the three types of interactions in a community? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What types do we have? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 38. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and unnatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly and slowly </li></ul></ul>
  21. 39. <ul><li>Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change </li></ul>
  22. 40. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human disturbance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 41. Primary Succession <ul><li>Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers melting </li></ul>
  24. 44. Stages of Primary Succession <ul><li>Start with no soil, just ash and rock </li></ul><ul><li>First species to populate this area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ pioneer species” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens  made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 45. Secondary Succession <ul><li>Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hurricane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human disturbances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest clearing </li></ul></ul>
  26. 51. Succession in Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Deep and dark </li></ul><ul><li>Can succession happen? </li></ul><ul><li>1987 dead whale off of California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique community of organisms living in remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale-fall community </li></ul></ul>
  27. 53. Whale-Fall Succession <ul><li>Begins when large whale dies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinks to barren ocean floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amphipods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hagfish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sharks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After a year, most tissues have been eaten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, second small community of organisms live here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small fishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crabs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Only skeleton remains… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third community moves in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose oil in bones  release of chemical compounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who uses these chemical compounds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 54. Human Activity and Species Diversity <ul><li>Land clearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse forest replaced with single crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases species diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduced species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans move a species from its native land to a new location, intentionally or accidentally </li></ul></ul>
  29. 55. Teacher, Study Chapter 35, Population Ecology and Community Interactions