Each time the heart beats (about 60-70 times a minute at rest), it pumps out blood into the arteries.
Brain and heart donohue eoc
Thinking and TransportingAn Overview to Biology EOC Anatomy (Brain and Heart)
Some Random Nervous System Trivia• Two Parts of the Nervous System• Central Nervous System CNS (blue) – Brain and spinal cord – Control center• Peripheral Nervous System PNS (pink) – Made of nerves that transmit information in the form of electrical impulses from the CNS to the rest of the body• Brain is protected by skull• Avg. size of adult human brain: 3 pounds
Brain is divided into 3 MAJOR Parts• Cerebrum – Orange, wrinkly walnut looking part• Cerebellum – Blue cauliflower looking thing• Brain Stem – Brown stem looking thing
Cerebrum• Largest part of brain• Divided into 2 “cerebral Hemispheres”• Each hemisphere is divided into 4 LOBES (FPO-t) – Frontal – Temporal – Parietal – Occipital
Match the picture with the lobe! (might match more than one!)A. Frontal reasoning, planning, parts of speech, 1. movement, emotions, and problem solvingB. Temporal associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speechC. Parietal 2. associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuliD. Occipital associated with visual processing 6. 8. 5. 3. 4. 7.
Cerebellum• Second largest part of brain• “little brain”• JOB: – Coordinate Movements – Posture – Maintain balance – Damage or injury to the part of this brain will make your movements jerky and uncoordinated
Brain Stem• Three MAJOR Parts (M-P-M): – Midbrain – Pons – Medulla Oblongata• Controls MOST important functions that keep us alive• Automatically controls: – Breathing – Heartbeat – Blood pressure – Circulation• Imagine if this wasn’t controlled automatically???• What if you forgot to breathe?? Def NOT good!
Brain Stem• Midbrain – Voluntary motor function – Vision – Hearing – Eye movement – Body movement• Pons – Motor control – Sensory analysis• Medulla Oblongata – Maintains VITAL body functions • Breathing • Heart rate
Right Brained vs. left Brained • Right side of the brain is connected to the left side of the body • Left side of the brain is connected to the right side of your body • Reason: – the nerves connecting the brain and the spinal cord cross to the opposite side. • Right handed people depend on left side of brain – Good at solving problems, math, language, analytical • Left handed People depend on right side of brain – good in music, art, creativity, story telling
Practice naming the structures!1. Temporal lobe A2. Parietal lobe3. Frontal lobe B4. Occipital lobe5. Cerebrum6. Cerebellum C7. Brainstem8. Midbrain9. Pons10.Medulla D
B C1. Temporal lobe A2. Parietal lobe3. Frontal lobe4. Occipital lobe5. Cerebrum6. Cerebellum7. Brainstem8. Midbrain9. Pons10.Medulla G D E F
B1. Temporal lobe A C2. Parietal lobe3. Frontal lobe4. Occipital lobe D5. Cerebrum6. Cerebellum7. Brainstem H8. Midbrain9. Pons E G10.Medulla F
Cardiovascular System• Transport system of the body• Carries nutrients (Glucose!) and oxygen TO the cells of the body• Carries waste products and carbon dioxide (CO2) AWAY from the cells• Transports chemical messages between cells (HORMONES)• Fights Disease (White blood cells)
Members of the Cardiovascular System• Heart• Blood Vessels• Blood
Click here to see it in action! The Heart• Muscular (cardiac muscle) organ in chest• 2 pumps (Right and left side) – Work together to move blood all around your body – Each side has a top (Atrium) and a bottom (ventricle) • 4 chambers of heart• Heart muscles contract push blood from the heart to the blood vessels
• Right Atrium RA Key Parts• Right Ventricle RV• Left Atrium LA• Left Ventricle LV• Aorta• Vena Cava• Pulmonary Artery PA• Pulmonary Vein PV
Blood Vessels• Arteries – Carry blood AWAY from heart – Full FedEx Trucks travel on here• Veins – Carry blood back TO the heart – Empty FedEx Truck travel on here• Capillaries – Teeny, tiny blood vessels that connect to arteries and veins – Nutrients and gas can pass through the capillaries from the blood to the cells that need them
Circulation Is Like FedEx Delivery Service• Oxygen molecules packages everyone is ordering from their homes (tissues all over the body)• Lungs Warehouses with the packages (oxygen)• Tissues individual homes, placing orders for the oxygen• Heart the distribution center of the body with the trucks needed to pick up packages from lungs and then deliver them to tissues – that directs trucks (RBCs)• Red Blood Cells (RBCs)delivery trucks carrying packages • they are either full of packages to deliver or empty• Arteries and Veins ONE-WAY roads trucks travel on• Clogged arteries, plaque build up Traffic Jams/lane closures/road blocks
Flow of Blood• RBCs go from RA to RV thru Pulmonary Arteries to LUNGS to pick up oxygen
Flow of Blood• Oxygenated blood enters LA, then the LV and then gets sent through the AORTA to deliver oxygen to tissues
Flow of• Blood Oxygen and nutrients travel from ARTERIES thru CAPILLARIES to cells• Deoxygenated blood and Waste (CO2) leaves cellscapillariesveins to be carried back to heart – (to be sent back to lungs to pickup more oxygen)
Flow of Blood• Waste and deOXY blood enter RA, the RV and then get get pumped out of the PULMONARY ARTERY to the lungs to get OXYGEN – need to go to factory to pick up more packages
Flow of• Blood Blood now has oxygen and returns to the heart through the PULMONARY VEIN to the LA, then LV, then back through the AORTA to start delivering more oxygen
Factors That Affect Blood Flow• Heart Rate – Beats per minute (bpm) – Avg. adult at rest: 60-100 bpm – Exercise, stress, chemicals increases bpm
Blood Pressure• The force of the blood pushing against the walls of the arteries• Your blood pressure is at its highest when the heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure.• When the heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure.
Cardiovascular Disease Causes• Heart attack and stroke are two main causes of death resulting from the following conditions:• Atherosclerosis – Condition in which fatty deposits called PLAQUE build up on the inner walls of arteries – Results in blood clots• High Blood Pressure – Condition where heart and blood vessels are being overworked – HYPERTENSION – Leads to other diseases
• Plaque is made upAtherosclerosis of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. • Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries • This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body • Leads to blood clots, heart attack, stroke and DEATH
Causes and Prevention of Atherosclerosis• Certain traits, conditions, or habits may raise your risk for the disease…called RISK FACTORS• Uncontrollable RISK FACTORS – Age – Family History of heart disease• Controllable RISK FACTORS – Physical Activity – Smoking – Unhealthy diet• MAIN TREATMENT for atherosclerosis: 1) lifestyle changes 2) medicines and medical procedures
Hypertension • TWO WAYS To create High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) 1. Extra fluid in the body increases the amount of fluid in blood vessels and makes blood pressure higher • Infection/disease 2. Narrow, stiff, or clogged blood vessels also raise blood pressure • Due to plaque build up