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Biochemistry part 2 and m&ms lab

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Biochemistry part 2 and m&ms lab

  1. 1. Biochemistry Part 2<br />Bonding, Isotopes, and Radioactivity<br />
  2. 2. Recap<br />Atomic structure<br />Valence electrons<br />Happy  atoms are full atoms (8 ve or 2 ve)<br />How do we make them happy??? <br />STEALING or SHARING valence shell electrons to have a complete ring…remember the Samaras?<br />
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  4. 4. Ionic Bonds<br />Atoms become IONS by losing or gaining electrons<br />What is the charge of an electron?<br />Sooo…they are losing or gaining a NEGATIVE charge<br />Covalent Bonds<br />SHARING of electrons<br />Val. Electrons spend their time around both atoms involved in the bond<br />NOT always equally shared, but still shared<br />Two Types of Bonds <br />
  5. 5. Ionic Compounds<br />Ions<br />A POSITIVELY or NEGATIVELY charged particle<br />Formed by gaining or losing electrons in an effort to become stable<br />Atom that lose one or more electron(s) POSITIVELY charged..CA+IONS<br />Atom that gains one or more electron(s)ANIONS<br />STEALING e-<br />
  6. 6. Which atoms become ions?<br />Which ever are veryyyyy close to being happy<br />They either have to lose or gain one or two electrons to have a complete outer ring<br />Remember, atoms are LAZY, they want to do as little work as possible to be happy<br />Groups 1A and 2A will lose e- and become +1 or +2 ca+ions (+)<br />Groups 6A and 7A greedy little suckers that will steal e- to become -1 or -2 anions (-)<br />
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  8. 8. Formation of Ionic Compounds<br />Opposites attract…positive ion finds an equally negative ion and they are hooked! (bonded)..its an IONIC BOND!!!<br /><ul><li>Charges cancel out and now we have a neutral (zero charge) Ionic Compound</li></li></ul><li>When naming Ionic Compounds…<br />Say the ca+ion first, then the anion<br />Add the suffix –ide to the anion<br />Ex. Sodium and chlorine form…<br />Na+ and Cl-<br />You say Sodium chloride<br />
  9. 9. Covalent Compounds<br />Not greedy…they would rather share<br />Their outer rings are about half way full…<br />Groups 3,4 and 5<br />The # of bonds an atom can form is equal to the number of valence electrons it NEEDS to be happy<br />Oxygen has___v.e….it needs___to be happy, so it can make ____ bonds.<br />
  10. 10. Covalent Bonds make…<br />2 or More atoms covalently bonded make a compound called a MOLECULE<br />Sharing of 2 e- b/t 2 atoms single bond (pretty strong)<br />Sharing of 4 e- b/t 2 atoms double bond (stronger hold)<br />Sharing of 6 e- b/t 2 atoms triple bond (really strong!)<br />
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  12. 12. 7 Diatomic Molecules<br />Di- means..<br />2<br />Atomic means<br />Referring to atoms<br />Molecules<br />Covalently bonded atoms<br />Put it together and what do you get:<br />2 atoms of the same element that are covalently bonded to EACHOTHER<br />Occurs naturally in Nature<br />Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2<br />BrINClHOF!!!<br />
  13. 13. Recap…<br />When we change # of protons we get…<br />A different element<br />We don’t want to change this!<br />When we change # of electrons we get…<br />IONS! <br />Cations + LOSE an electron<br />Anions – Gain an electron<br />When we change the # of neutrons we get…<br />
  14. 14. ISOTOPES! <br />Atoms with the same atomic number but with different atomic masses are called isotopes<br />Changing the # of neutrons in an atom will affect the…<br />MASS NUMBER= protons + neutrons<br />Isotopes of an element have the same # of p+ and e-…so they behave the same CHEMICALLY<br />The average of all the mass #s of the isotopes of an element give us that decimal on the periodic table (Average Atomic Mass)<br />
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  17. 17. Radioactive Isotopes<br />As the difference b/t p+ and n. in the nucleus increases, the nucleus becomes more unstable<br />When p=n , nucleus is stable…<br />When n>p, nucleus is unstable<br />Nucleus will give off tiny amounts of energy to become stable (protons or neutrons)<br />Radiation=energy<br />Radioactive=when something gives off energy<br />
  18. 18. Isotopes of the Element Potassium with a Known Natural Abundance<br />Mass # Natural Abundance Half-life <br />39 93.2581% Stable <br />40 0.0117% 1.265×10+9 years <br />41 6.7302% Stable<br />
  19. 19. Isotopes continued<br />Radiation can be dangerous in large amounts but in small amounts it can be useful in science<br />Geology-determine age of fossils and rocks<br />Medicine-treat cancer and detect cell processes (tracers)<br />PET scans, CT scans, MRI<br />Commercial-kill bacteria that spoils certain foods<br />
  20. 20. Mm Isotope Discovery Lab<br />
  21. 21. New Discovery!!!<br />You and your research team have discovered a new element…Mm…<br />Mm is an essential element in the human diet<br />There are three naturally occurring isotopes of the element Mm <br />Atomic Number of Mm is 30<br />Your teams goal is to determine the average atomic mass of the element Mm by determining the percent abundance of each naturally occurring Mm isotope<br />You have already determined the masses of each of the three different Mm isotopes:<br />
  22. 22. Calculations<br />Percent Abundance of isotope Mm-R=<br />(Total # of Mm-R in nature/ Total # of all Mm-isotopes in nature) x 100%<br />Percent Abundance of isotope Mm-B=<br />(Total # of Mm-B in nature/ Total # of all Mm-isotopes in nature) x 100%<br />Percent Abundance of isotope Mm-Y=<br />(Total # of Mm-Y in nature/ Total # of all Mm-isotopes in nature) x 100%<br />Mass Contribution of each isotope:<br />(amu of Mm isotope) x (percent abundance of Mm isotope in nature)<br />Average Atomic Mass= <br />[(mass contribution of Mm-R) + (mass contr. of Mm-B) + (mass contr. of Mm-Y)] <br />Show ALL Calculations<br />Take Pictures of Set up<br />Record all procedures<br />
  23. 23. Homework<br />Complete Lab Report For Isotope Lab<br />See lab report guidelines<br />Extra Credit:<br />Make A Creative Periodic Table Element Box for your New Element….Be sure to include all your information you gathered from your extensive research!<br />Atomic Number<br />Average Atomic Mass<br />Chemical Symbol<br />BE CREATIVE!<br />

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