Atp And Electron Transport Chain

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Atp And Electron Transport Chain

  1. 1. Chapter 7 pp. 143-152
  2. 2. <ul><li>Adenosine Triphosphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenosine portion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen-containing compound </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-Carbon sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triphosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3- phosphate group tail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ business” end of the molecule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where the energy comes from </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each phosphate group has a negative charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negatives repel each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to the potential E stored in ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kind of like a compressed spring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 5. How Does ATP release Energy? <ul><li>High Energy bonds between phosphate groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To release this energy, bond must be broken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does the bond break? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A phosphate group from ATP is transferred to another molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When ATP loses a phosphate group, it becomes Adensosine Diphosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also releases energy for the cell to use in its many processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The potential energy stored in the bond has been converted into kinetic energy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. 3 Types of Work Your Cell Can Do <ul><li>Chemical Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building a large molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put many amino acids together by a dehydration synthesis reaction (reaction that removes water) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically moving a protein or cellular structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Cilia, flagella, muscle proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of a muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In muscle cells, ATP transfers phosphate group, starting chain of events that cause muscle cells to contract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping solutes across a membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of phosphate group in ATP cause membrane protein to change shape and transport solute into/out of cell </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. ATP CYCLE <ul><li>Recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>ATP loses a P group  ADP </li></ul><ul><li>ADP gains P group  ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Adding phosphate group requires E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like it takes energy to compress a spring (you have to push it back) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does this energy to add phosphate group come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecules from FOOD </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. How Does the Cell Keep Up With the Demand for ATP? <ul><li>The ATP recycling processes happens very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>A muscle cell recycles ALL of its ATP molecules in about one minute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million ATP molecules spent AND regenerated every second </li></ul></ul>

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