#3 donohue public health and disease


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#3 donohue public health and disease

  1. 1. ImmuneSystem, Vaccines, and Antibiotics Part 1Biology EOC ReviewSC.912.L14.52 By M. Donohue
  2. 2. •Think Fast!Copy the chart onto your paper…You have two minutes to writedown everything you know and have heard about the 4 followingtermsBacteria Viruses Antibiotics Vaccines
  3. 3. •What is a disease? Any change, other than an injury, that can interfere • with the life processes of an organism• Causes: Germ Theory of Disease • Infections (from pathogenic Observations of Louis Pasteur agents) and Robert Koch led them to • Genes believe that infectious diseases • Behavior were caused by microorganisms • Exposure to chemicals in the of different types (germs) environment
  4. 4. •Public Health Science that deals with protecting and improving • the health of the people in a community • Focuses on the health of the whole population• Ways to improve public health: • Education about diseases and causes • Provide clean drinking water • Promote healthy living habits • Ex. Farmers markets and hand sanitizers in schools and hospitals • Research causes and treatments of various diseases • Vaccination Campaigns • Food and Drug Safety regulations
  5. 5. •Types of DiseaseINFECTIOUS DISEASE NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE• Those diseases that can spread Disease that is not spread • from one organism to another from one organism to • Caused by PATHOGENS another • Organisms and agents that • Causes include: cause infectious disease • exposure to • Describe something that can environmental factors be passed from one organism to another such as chemicals or • Examples radiation • Bacteria, fungi, and • Genetics protists, viruses • Poor health habits • PARASITES- • Smoking, poor eating • An organism that lives in habits, lack of physical or on another organism and obtains nutrients activity, drug/alcohol from the hosts’ body abuse tissues • Examples • Spread easily through • Cancer, diabetes, allergie direct physical contact or indirect contact, s, heart disease, mental such as contaminated illness food, water, and waste
  6. 6. •Noninfectious Disease NOT spread from one organism to another• Environmental Factors ENVIRONMENTAL • Radiation FACTORS • Toxins/chemicals • Air pollution • Natural (plants animals and fungi) • respiratory • Unnatural (pollution) disease• Genetics (asthma) • Passed down from one generation to its offspring and lung • Not always “ALL-OR-NOTHING” cancer • You may get the gene but outside factors can • Water and Soil influence the expression of disease Pollution Ex: Gene for heart disease influenced by diet • Heavy • and exercise• Mutations metals taken in by • Changes in an organisms DNA plants and • A mutation is passed down to every cell that eaten by us develops from that mutated cell • Heavy • If a REPRODUCTIVE CELL or GAMETE mutates mutation can be passed from parent to offspring metals • If SOMATIC or NORMAL cell mutates mutation runoff into CANNOT be passed to offspring lakes and• Poor health habits rivers and get into our Drugs • water • Alcohol supply • Tobacco
  7. 7. GENETIC DISEASES CAUSED BYMUTATIONS• Cystic fibrosis • Too many Cl- ions outside cell • Extra Cl- ions make the mucus around cells thicker than normal=person has trouble breathing• Huntington’s disease • Degeneration of nervous system • Mental deterioration • Uncontrollable movements • Premature death• Sickle cell anemia • Changes protein hemoglobin on RBC and distorts the shape of RBCs. • RBCs have “sickle” shape and clog vessels and cannot carry oxygen efficiently=weakness• Hemophilia • Inability to produce the protein that is important in blood clotting • Bruise easily • Person can die from minor cuts because they can bleed to death
  8. 8. •Infectious Disease • Can EASILY spread from one organism to another • Caused by pathogens • Bacteria • Viruses
  9. 9. •Bacteria and disease• Reproduce rapidly• Spread easily• Break down cells in the host’s body for food=tissue damage• Release toxins into hosts’ body • Toxin- a poison that acts on a particular body system • Ex. Bacteria that causes strep throat releases toxin that can cause scarlet fever • Tetnus-disease caused by bacteria that also release toxin that affects nervous system• Diseases caused by bacteria • Strep throat • Pneumonia • Anthrax • Lyme disease
  10. 10. •Viral Infections• What is a Virus? • Tiny particles of genetic info (RNA or DNA) surrounded by a protein coat• Diseases caused by a virus: • Common cold or influenza (flu) • Rabies • Small pox • Rabies • AIDS (Autoimmune deficiency syndrome)• Viruses can only replicate or make more viruses when they are in a living cell (the HOST) • They must HIJACK the cells machinery (Organelles)• Most Viruses attack only one kind of organism • Example: bacteriophage is a virus that only attacks bacteria (phage means “to eat”)
  11. 11. •How a Virus Infects A Cell• Virus attaches to bacterial cell wall• injects DNA into bacterial cell• Virus directs cell to make viral nucleic acid• Virus DNA and proteins assemble into new virus• Bacterial cell opens and the virus particle is released• Virus that infects bacteria is called a BACTERIOPHAGE
  12. 12. •3 ways To Prevent Infectious Disease1. Vaccinations2. Practice Good Hygiene3. Avoid people you know are sick
  13. 13. •Vaccines • Weakened OR deactivated forms of pathogen that are introduced into your body to cause YOUR immune system to produce antibodies that fight off the pathogen• Many different vaccines have been made to protect people from viruses and bacteria
  14. 14. Click Here! How Vaccines •4 Ways Vaccines Work Work VIDEO1) Weaken the Virus • viruses are weakened so that they reproduce themselves very poorly once inside the body • Body is able to make “memory B cells” to protect patient against the virus for life + only one or two doses need for life long immunity - may cause a mild version of disease and people with weakened immune systems (cancer or AIDS) cannot get them2) Inactivate the Virus • Viruses are completely inactivated (or killed) with a chemical • the virus is still "seen" by the body and cells of the immune system that protect against disease are generated + anybody can get this vaccine - Many doses are required3) Use Part of the Virus • just one part of the virus is removed and used as a vaccine (proteins on the surface of the virus) • can be used when an immune response to one part of the virus (or bacteria) is responsible for protection against disease + a few doses= long lived immunity4) Use Part of the Bacteria • Make vaccine by inactivating toxin with a chemical (the toxin, once inactivated, is called a toxoid). • Toxoid no longer causes harm and body create immune cells against this specific toxin • Make vaccine using the sugar coat of specific bacteria • Body build immunity against bacteria with that specific sugar coat - requires many doses to build immunity
  15. 15. Lesson Review1) What word describes diseases that are spread from one organism to another?2) Explain how pathogens are related to human health.3) Explain how viruses reproduce. Include a labeled diagram.4) Discussion Question: Many forms of skin cancer have been linked to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. People who have fair skin and light colored eyes tend to be at an increased risk for skin cancer. However, not everyone with those traits will develop skin cancer. What can you infer about the role of genetics in a person’s risk of skin cancer? What role does behavior play? Does the environment make a difference?
  16. 16. • Complete The Handout On Your Own Piece of notebook Paper