#1 marcellus scientific thinking, biochem, macromolecules, water revised by donohue
Scientific Method Review 1) Problem Statement(Question) 2) Hypothesis(Possible Answer to Question) 3) Experiment (Testing possible Answer) 4) Analysis(Comparing effects of the Experimental Group and to that of the Control Group) 5) Conclusion (State if Hypothesis was proven to be right or wrong)
Parts of ever Experiment Variables – factors that can change in an experiment. Independent Variable(Cause) – factor that is purposely changed by the experimenter. Dependent Variable(Effect) – factor that results from the change made by the independent variable. Control Group – used as a standard to compare to experiment group; independent variable is not changed in control group. Experiment Group – includes factor that is changed (independent variable).
Scientific Method Review Through the use of The Scientific Method two things can be formed after Peer Review: A) Scientific Theory – a possible explanation that is supported by scientific findings. B) Scientific Law – a rule that describes a pattern in nature. Peer Review- scientist check each others work by replicating their experiment to validate the other scientist claims. Note: In scientific data tables/graphs the independent variable(IV) is always written on the x-axis. The dependent variable is written on the y-axis. DRY MIX – dependent responding y-axis, Manipulated independent x-axis
Scientific Graphs/Tables DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdoms Eubacteria ArchaebacteriaDOMAIN BACTERIA Protista Plantae Fungi AnimaliaThis chart is called a cladogram. Cladogram show the evolutionary relationships among group of organisms.
Scientific Graphs/Tables • PH SCALE (POWER OF HYDROGEN) Oven cleaner Bleach Increasingly Basic Ammonia solution Soap Sea water Human blood Milk Normal rainfall Increasingly Acidic Acid rain Tomato juice Lemon juice Stomach acid
Types of Graphs Bar Graphs Line Graphs Stem and Leaf Plots Circle Graph Histograms(Only used to find frequency)
Types of Graphs Box and Whisker Plots Scatter Plots Cummulative Frequency (ogive) graphs.
Sample Question Lisa is working on a science project. Her task is to answer the question: "Does Rogooti (which is a commercial hair product) affect the speed of hair growth". Her family is willing to volunteer for the experiment. Describe how Lisa would perform this experiment. Identify the control group, and the independent and dependent variables in your description.
Answer to Sample Question A) Possible Experiment : Lisa can test how long the volunteer hair grows in week 1. Then she can use the commercial hair product to see how long the volunteer hair grows in week 2. B)Independent Variable will be the commercial hair product. C)Dependent Variable will be the length the hair grows(Speed of hair growth). D) Control will be the normal hair growth without product.
Baseline Sample Questions Dan built a model water dripper continuously watering a plant that grows best when its soil is kept damp. He designed his model to improve on existing watering methods that required the plant be watered by hand every 12 hours. Watering by hand left the soil dry at times and soaking wet at other times. In a controlled experiment to test the effectiveness of the water dripper compared to watering by hand, which would be the best procedure for caring for plants in the control group? A. not watering them at all B. watering them by hand every 12 hours C. watering them every 12 hours but with decreasing amounts of water D. watering them every time their soil appears dry without relying in time
Water Water is the universal solvent because its ability to dissolve compounds and other polar molecules. Water has unique properties such: 1)Polar – Negatively charged oxygen and positively charge hydrogen’s. 2)High Specific Heat- water molecule can hold a lot of heat before its temperature changes(Moderates Temp). 3)Cohesion- waters ability to bond to itself. 4)Adhesion- waters ability to bond with other molecules.Note: Water has a strong bond with other molecules then with itself(Ex. water in a glass beaker forming a dip at the center). Water has a strong bond with the glass molecule then will itself.
Water molecules dissolving Sodium Chloride Water polarity attracts itself to other molecules. For example: Water is the universal solvent(dissolves solutes).
High Heat Capacity of Water Positive hydrogen atom is attracted to negative oxygen atom and water molecules stick together. They make intermolecular dipole-dipole bonds and these bonds are very strong. Because the molecules are being held tightly in place by these bonds, the H2O molecules dont move much when heated. It takes more and more heat to move the molecules, causing water to have a high specific heat capacity.
Baseline Sample Questions The Gulf Stream is an ocean current that flows along Florida’s east coast. It has an important moderating effects on the climates of northern latitudes, particularly in Greenland, Canada, and Europe. What property of water makes the climates of these areas milder than they would otherwise be? A. melting point B. high specific heat capacity C. polarity and electronegativity D. expansion of crystal structure as water freezes
The 4 Macromolecules Organic Compound found in all living things. Macromolecule Function 1)Carbohydrate provide energy for cell activities 2)Lipids Store energy in the form of fats, waxes and oils. Makes up the cell membrane. 3)Protein many functions 4)Nucleic Acid stores genetic info
Brief Overview of 4 Macromolecules Carbohydrates- Function: provide energy and store energy; structure and support Monomer: monosaccharaides and disaccharides Polymer: polysaccharides aka complex carbohydrates (Starches) Proteins Functions: transport, mechanical, signaling, defense, movement, identification, (a lot) Monomer: Amino acids Polymer: Polypeptide Chain (PROTEINS) Nucleic Acids Function: stores genetic info for organisms; what proteins to make Monomer: Nucleotide Polymer: Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) Lipids, fats, oils and steroids Function: stores extra energy; insulation; waterproofing; cell membrane; Monomer: NONE Polymer: NONE
Carbohydrates-(Polymer) Example of a Carbohydrate is starch. Starches are made up of links of connected glucose(monomers). Starch Glucose
Amino Acid(Monomer) Amino Acids link up together to form polymers called proteins. Proteins have a 3-D shape. Amino group Carboxyl group Amino acids General structure Alanine SerineReaction pathwaywith enzymeExample of a protein are enzymes. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Reaction pathway Activation energy without enzyme without enzyme Independent variable (Y-axis)is the enzymes presence lowing the activation energy. Dependent Variable(X-axis) the time it takes for the reaction to happen. Activation Reaction pathway energy with enzyme with enzyme
Baseline Sample Questions Which type of biological macromolecule determines traits plant will inherit from its parent plants? A. lipids B. proteins C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates A student writes a research paper on the function of lipids in the human body. Which of the following would be appropriate title for the report? A. Energy Storage and Cell Membranes: An Extraordinary Molecule B. Strong Muscles and Bones: How the Body Builds Them C. Energy for Activities Right Now D. Genetics and You