Biology 1- EOC Review
-       Law of Segregation    -    Two alleles will segregate from each other so that         each gamete carries only a s...
   Dominant     Trait is shown/seen     Must have a CAPITAL letter to be dominant   Recessive     Trait is masked or ...
   The heterozygous    phenotype is a blend    between the two    homozygous    phenotypes.   CRCR= Red flowers   CRCW=...
   Both alleles are    expressed in the    phenotype
   Multiple Alleles     Genes that have more than two alleles     More than two possible alleles exists in a population...
   Somatic cells- a body cell that is not passed    on to future generations.   Sex or germ cells- a cell that is destin...
 The cell cycle has two  major stages;  interphase and mitotic  phase (M). The longest phase of  the cell cycle is  inte...
   G1     Stage where cells spend the most time.     G- growth phase to prepare for S phase.   S     S- synthesis    ...
   Cells that undergo mitosis produce    genetically identical cells (2N).   Four stages of mitosis     Prophase     M...
 Beginning of cellular  division Chromosomes  condense Centrioles migrate to  poles Nuclear envelope  disappers.
 Chromosomes line up  along the equator Centrioles are on  opposite poles of the  cell Spindle fibers attach to  the ce...
 The centromeres  divide Go from two sister  chromatids to 2  separate  chromosomes Spindle fibers pull the  chromosome...
   Telophase     Chromosomes are at poles     Nuclear envelope reforms   Cytokinesis     Division of cytoplasm     C...
 Meiosis occurs in sexual reproduction A diploid germ cell produces four haploid daughter  cells that become gametes. H...
 Chromatids pair and  crossing over occurs. Chromosomes  condense Spindle fibers form Nuclear envelope  disappears
   Chromatid pairs line up along the equator   Spindle fibers attach
 Spindle fibers pull  chromosomes to  opposite poles Sister chromatids  remain attached
 Nuclear envelopes  reassemble Spindle fibers  disappear Cytokinesis divides cell.
 Nuclear envelopes  disappears Spindle fibers form
   Chromosomes line up    along the equator
 Sister chromatids are  separated Spindle fibers pull the  separate  chromosomes to  opposite poles
   Nuclear envelope    forms   Spindle fibers    disappear   Chromosomes unravel   Cytokinesis divides the    cells  ...
Mitosis                 Meiosis 2 identical daughter  4 genetically different         cells             daughter cellsDipl...
Mitosis and meiosis are processes involved incellular reproduction. Which of the followingdescribes an event that results ...
Mitosis and meiosis are processes involved incellular reproduction. Which of the followingdescribes an event that results ...
Which of the following best compares the processes ofmitosis and meiosis?a. Mitosis involves one division cycle and result...
Which of the following best compares the processes ofmitosis and meiosis?a. Mitosis involves one division cycle and result...
Which of the following best describes how the process ofcrossing over during meiosis leads to an increase ingenetic divers...
Which of the following best describes how the process ofcrossing over during meiosis leads to an increase ingenetic divers...
The allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele forblue eyes. Which of the following best explains howtwo brown-eyed p...
The allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele forblue eyes. Which of the following best explains howtwo brown-eyed p...
When an organism has more than 10 fingers ortoes, the condition is known as polydactylism.Although polydactylism is rare, ...
When an organism has more than 10 fingers ortoes, the condition is known as polydactylism.Although polydactylism is rare, ...
In pea plants, the allele for white flowers is recessiveto the allele for purple flowers. In a generation of peaplants, 89...
In pea plants, the allele for white flowers is recessiveto the allele for purple flowers. In a generation of peaplants, 89...
Meiosis allows a plant to produce offspringplants with which characteristic?a.   A high rate of random mutationsb.   Uniqu...
Meiosis allows a plant to produce offspringplants with which characteristic?a.   A high rate of random mutationsb.   Uniqu...
Suppose you cross two heterozygous tall peaplants, both with genotype Tt. What is the probabilitythat the offspring will d...
Suppose you cross two heterozygous tall peaplants, both with genotype Tt. What is the probabilitythat the offspring will d...
In biology, several different processes make up thecycles for cell division. In which complete process arefour new cells c...
In biology, several different processes make up thecycles for cell division. In which complete process arefour new cells c...
The process by which cells replicate is verydifferent than the process by which gametesare produced. Which of the followin...
The process by which cells replicate is verydifferent than the process by which gametesare produced. Which of the followin...
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#1 castro mitosis meiosis and genetics

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  • Talk about heterozygous vs. homozygous. Display a Punnett square to students to help understand dominant vs. recessive, and probability of genetic crosses. 1. TT x tt = 100% Tt (heterozygous) 2. Tt x Tt = 25% TT (homozygous dominant), 50% Tt (heterozygous), and 25% tt (homozygous recessive)
  • Vocabulary for cell division.
  • The acronym- PMAT to remember the stages of mitosis.
  • Meiosis I- interphase 1, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, and telophase 1/cytokinesis. Meiosis II- prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2/cytokinesis.
  • #1 castro mitosis meiosis and genetics

    1. 1. Biology 1- EOC Review
    2. 2. - Law of Segregation - Two alleles will segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each allele.- Law of Independent Assortment - Genes of different traits can segregate independently during gamete formation.
    3. 3.  Dominant  Trait is shown/seen  Must have a CAPITAL letter to be dominant Recessive  Trait is masked or not seen if dominant allele is present  Must have a lowercase letter
    4. 4.  The heterozygous phenotype is a blend between the two homozygous phenotypes. CRCR= Red flowers CRCW= Pink flowers CWCW= White flowers
    5. 5.  Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype
    6. 6.  Multiple Alleles  Genes that have more than two alleles  More than two possible alleles exists in a population. Ex- coat color in rabbits (full color, chinchillas, Himalayan, and albino. Polygenic Traits  Traits that are produced by the interaction of several genes.  Show a wide range of traits. Ex- human skin colors.
    7. 7.  Somatic cells- a body cell that is not passed on to future generations. Sex or germ cells- a cell that is destined to become a gamete (egg or sperm). Diploid (2N) – a cell with 2 chromosome sets in each cell; somatic cells. Haploid (N) – a cell with 1 chromosome set in each cell; germ cells.
    8. 8.  The cell cycle has two major stages; interphase and mitotic phase (M). The longest phase of the cell cycle is interphase. Consists of 3 stages; G1, S, and G2.
    9. 9.  G1  Stage where cells spend the most time.  G- growth phase to prepare for S phase. S  S- synthesis  Stage of DNA replication G2  G- growth period.  Prepares cell for mitosis.
    10. 10.  Cells that undergo mitosis produce genetically identical cells (2N). Four stages of mitosis  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase/Cytokinesis
    11. 11.  Beginning of cellular division Chromosomes condense Centrioles migrate to poles Nuclear envelope disappers.
    12. 12.  Chromosomes line up along the equator Centrioles are on opposite poles of the cell Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres
    13. 13.  The centromeres divide Go from two sister chromatids to 2 separate chromosomes Spindle fibers pull the chromosomes to opposite poles
    14. 14.  Telophase  Chromosomes are at poles  Nuclear envelope reforms Cytokinesis  Division of cytoplasm  Cleavage furrow forms to separate daughter cells  Cell plate forms in plant cells (eventually forms cell wall)
    15. 15.  Meiosis occurs in sexual reproduction A diploid germ cell produces four haploid daughter cells that become gametes. Have two major stages Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
    16. 16.  Chromatids pair and crossing over occurs. Chromosomes condense Spindle fibers form Nuclear envelope disappears
    17. 17.  Chromatid pairs line up along the equator Spindle fibers attach
    18. 18.  Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to opposite poles Sister chromatids remain attached
    19. 19.  Nuclear envelopes reassemble Spindle fibers disappear Cytokinesis divides cell.
    20. 20.  Nuclear envelopes disappears Spindle fibers form
    21. 21.  Chromosomes line up along the equator
    22. 22.  Sister chromatids are separated Spindle fibers pull the separate chromosomes to opposite poles
    23. 23.  Nuclear envelope forms Spindle fibers disappear Chromosomes unravel Cytokinesis divides the cells Have four haploid daughter cells
    24. 24. Mitosis Meiosis 2 identical daughter 4 genetically different cells daughter cellsDiploid (2N)  diploid Diploid (2N)  haploid (2N) (N)Asexual reproduction- Sexual reproduction-organisms reproduce organism produce by mitosis gametes
    25. 25. Mitosis and meiosis are processes involved incellular reproduction. Which of the followingdescribes an event that results from mitosis butNOT meiosis?a. Two stages of cell divisionb. Replication of cellular genetic materialc. Daughter cells that are identical to the parent celld. Four daughter cells that are produced from each parent cell
    26. 26. Mitosis and meiosis are processes involved incellular reproduction. Which of the followingdescribes an event that results from mitosis butNOT meiosis?a. Two stages of cell divisionb. Replication of cellular genetic materialc. Daughter cells that are identical to the parent celld. Four daughter cells that are produced from each parent cell
    27. 27. Which of the following best compares the processes ofmitosis and meiosis?a. Mitosis involves one division cycle and results in diploid daughter cells, while meiosis consists of two division cycles and results in haploid gametesb. Mitosis involves one division cycle and results in haploid gametes, while meiosis consists of two division cycles and results in diploid daughter cellsc. Mitosis involves two division cycles and results in diploid daughter cells, while meiosis consists of one division cycle and results in haploid gametes.d. Mitosis involves two division cycles and results in haploid gametes, while meiosis consists of one division cycle and results in diploid daughter cells.
    28. 28. Which of the following best compares the processes ofmitosis and meiosis?a. Mitosis involves one division cycle and results in diploid daughter cells, while meiosis consists of two division cycles and results in haploid gametesb. Mitosis involves one division cycle and results in haploid gametes, while meiosis consists of two division cycles and results in diploid daughter cellsc. Mitosis involves two division cycles and results in diploid daughter cells, while meiosis consists of one division cycle and results in haploid gametes.d. Mitosis involves two division cycles and results in haploid gametes, while meiosis consists of one division cycle and results in diploid daughter cells.
    29. 29. Which of the following best describes how the process ofcrossing over during meiosis leads to an increase ingenetic diversity?a. During prophase I, DNA replication takes place, and homologous chromosomes trade places with each other before lining up in preparation for metaphaseb. During prophase I, DNA segments are exchanged between homologous chromosomes, resulting in different combinations of allelesc. During prophase II, fragments of DNA break off of chromosomes and attach to the ends of other chromosomes, resulting in different gene sequencesd. During prophase II, sister chromatids separate from each other, as they travel to opposite ends of the cell, DNA segments of nearby chromosomes are exchanged
    30. 30. Which of the following best describes how the process ofcrossing over during meiosis leads to an increase ingenetic diversity?a. During prophase I, DNA replication takes place, and homologous chromosomes trade places with each other before lining up in preparation for metaphaseb. During prophase I, DNA segments are exchanged between homologous chromosomes, resulting in different combinations of allelesc. During prophase II, fragments of DNA break off of chromosomes and attach to the ends of other chromosomes, resulting in different gene sequencesd. During prophase II, sister chromatids separate from each other, as they travel to opposite ends of the cell, DNA segments of nearby chromosomes are exchanged
    31. 31. The allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele forblue eyes. Which of the following best explains howtwo brown-eyed parents could produce a blue-eyedchild?a. Each parent must be carrying the recessive allele for blue eyesb. Eye color is a sex-linked trait and male children could have only the allele for blue eyesc. Mutations after fertilization could alter gene sequences and change allelesd. One parent must have had only blue eyed parents
    32. 32. The allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele forblue eyes. Which of the following best explains howtwo brown-eyed parents could produce a blue-eyedchild?a. Each parent must be carrying the recessive allele for blue eyesb. Eye color is a sex-linked trait and male children could have only the allele for blue eyesc. Mutations after fertilization could alter gene sequences and change allelesd. One parent must have had only blue eyed parents
    33. 33. When an organism has more than 10 fingers ortoes, the condition is known as polydactylism.Although polydactylism is rare, it is a dominant trait. Iftwo cats that are heterozygous for polydactylismmate and have a litter with a total of 12 kittens, howmany of them would you expect more than 10 fingersor toes?a. 0b. 6c. 9d. 12
    34. 34. When an organism has more than 10 fingers ortoes, the condition is known as polydactylism.Although polydactylism is rare, it is a dominant trait. Iftwo cats that are heterozygous for polydactylismmate and have a litter with a total of 12 kittens, howmany of them would you expect more than 10 fingersor toes?a. 0b. 6c. 9d. 12
    35. 35. In pea plants, the allele for white flowers is recessiveto the allele for purple flowers. In a generation of peaplants, 89 plants produced purple flowers and 31plants produced white flowers. Which of the followingis the best conclusion you can make about the parentplants of this generation?a. Both parent plants are heterozygous for flower colorb. Both parent plants were homozygous with purple flowersc. One parent plant had white flowers and the other was heterozygous for flower colord. One parent plant was heterozygous for flower color, and the other was homozygous with purple flowers
    36. 36. In pea plants, the allele for white flowers is recessiveto the allele for purple flowers. In a generation of peaplants, 89 plants produced purple flowers and 31plants produced white flowers. Which of the followingis the best conclusion you can make about the parentplants of this generation?a. Both parent plants are heterozygous for flower colorb. Both parent plants were homozygous with purple flowersc. One parent plant had white flowers and the other was heterozygous for flower colord. One parent plant was heterozygous for flower color, and the other was homozygous with purple flowers
    37. 37. Meiosis allows a plant to produce offspringplants with which characteristic?a. A high rate of random mutationsb. Unique combinations of genetic materialc. Traits identical to those of the parent plantd. Characteristics adaptive to the plants environment
    38. 38. Meiosis allows a plant to produce offspringplants with which characteristic?a. A high rate of random mutationsb. Unique combinations of genetic materialc. Traits identical to those of the parent plantd. Characteristics adaptive to the plants environment
    39. 39. Suppose you cross two heterozygous tall peaplants, both with genotype Tt. What is the probabilitythat the offspring will display the dominant trait?a. 100%b. 75%c. 50%d. 25%
    40. 40. Suppose you cross two heterozygous tall peaplants, both with genotype Tt. What is the probabilitythat the offspring will display the dominant trait?a. 100%b. 75%c. 50%d. 25%
    41. 41. In biology, several different processes make up thecycles for cell division. In which complete process arefour new cells created from one original cell?a. Anaphaseb. Meiosisc. Mitosisd. telophase
    42. 42. In biology, several different processes make up thecycles for cell division. In which complete process arefour new cells created from one original cell?a. Anaphaseb. Meiosisc. Mitosisd. telophase
    43. 43. The process by which cells replicate is verydifferent than the process by which gametesare produced. Which of the following do bothprocesses have in common?a. Cytokinesisb. Haploid cells formc. Crossing-over occursd. Homologous chromosomes pair up
    44. 44. The process by which cells replicate is verydifferent than the process by which gametesare produced. Which of the following do bothprocesses have in common?a. Cytokinesisb. Haploid cells formc. Crossing-over occursd. Homologous chromosomes pair up

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