PHP complete reference with database concepts for beginners

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php complete reference with database concepts for beginners is generally useful for those who want to start the career as a php developer. given each and every information right from the scratch to understand for the beginners and students as well. I hope this will help you a lot for the beginners to start the career.

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PHP complete reference with database concepts for beginners

  1. 1. PHP BY :Mohammed Mushtaq Ahmed
  2. 2. Contents • • • • • HTML JavaScript PHP MySQL WAMP
  3. 3. HTML • • • • Hyper Text Markup Language Developed by Tim Berners lee in 1990. Easy to use ,Easy to learn Markup tags tell the browser how to display the page. • A HTML file must have an extension .htm or.html.
  4. 4. Cont….. • HTML tags are surrounded by “<“ and “>” (angular brackets). • Tags normally come in pairs like <H1> and </H1>. • Tags are not case sensitive i.e. <p> is same as <P>. • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag and so on ……,.
  5. 5. Cont…
  6. 6. JavaScript • • • • JavaScript ≠ Java Developed by Netscape Purpose: to Create Dynamic websites Starts with < script type=“text/java script”> and ends with < /script>. • Easy to learn , easy to use. • More powerful,loosely typed
  7. 7. Cont… • • • • • Conversion automatically Used to customize web pages. Make pages more dynamic. To validate CGI forms. It’s limited (can not develpe standalone aplli.) • Widely Used
  8. 8. About PHP • • • • • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor), Dynamic web pages. It’s like ASP. PHP scripts are executed on the server . PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml".
  9. 9. Why PHP • PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) • PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) • PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www.php.net • PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side
  10. 10. Cont… • A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. • Can be placed any where within a document. • We can start a scripting block with <? and end with ?> on servers that provide shorthand support. • It is advised to use standard tags for best outputs.
  11. 11. Features of PHP… • Speed • Full database Support • Open source and free to download and use. • Cross platform • Easy for newcomer and advance features
  12. 12. Cont… • Used to create dynamic web pages. • Freedom to choose any operating system and a web server. • Not constrained to output only HTML. PHP's abilities include outputting images, PDF files etc. • Support for a wide range of databases. Eg: dBase, MySQL, Oracle etc.
  13. 13. Working of PHP… • URL is typed in the browser. • The browser sends a request to the web server. • The web server then calls the PHP script on that page. • The PHP module executes the script, which then sends out the result in the form of HTML back to the browser, which can be seen on the screen.
  14. 14. PHP BASICS… A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?> A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with <? and end with ?> For maximum compatibility; use the standard form <?php ?>rather than the shorthand form <? ?>
  15. 15. Structure of PHP Programe <html> <body> <?php echo “hi friends….."; ?> </body> </html>
  16. 16. Combining PHP with HTml <html> <head> <title>My First Web Page</title> </head> <body bgcolor="white"> <p>A Paragraph of Text</p> <?php Echo ”HELLO”; ?> </body> </html>
  17. 17. Comments in PHP • In PHP, we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block. Example : <?php //This is a comment /* This is a comment block */ ?> 17
  18. 18. PHP Variables • A variable is used to store information. – text strings – numbers – Arrays • Examples: – A variable containing a string: <?php $txt="Hello World!"; ?> – A variable containing a number: <?php $x=16; ?> 18
  19. 19. Naming Rules for Variables • Must start with a letter or an underscore "_" • Can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and _ ) • Should not contain spaces. If a variable name is more than one word, it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string), or with capitalization ($myString) 19
  20. 20. PHP String Variables • It is used to store and manipulate text. • Example: <?php $txt1="Hello World!"; $txt2="What a nice day!"; echo $txt1 . " " . $txt2; ?> • Output: Hello World! What a nice day! 20
  21. 21. The strlen() function • The strlen() function is used to return the length of a string. • Example: <?php echo strlen("Hello world!"); ?> • Output: 12 21
  22. 22. Assignment Operators 22
  23. 23. Comparison Operators 23
  24. 24. Logical Operators 24
  25. 25. Conditional Statements 25
  26. 26. PHP If...Else Statements Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. – if statement - use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true – if...else statement - use this statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is false – if...elseif....else statement - use this statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed – switch statement - use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed 26
  27. 27. Example: if..else statement <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D"); if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!"; else echo "Have a nice day!"; ?> </body> </html> 27
  28. 28. Continue.. If..else • If more than one line should be executed if a condition is true/false, the lines should be enclosed within curly braces: • Example: <?php $d=date("D"); if ($d=="Fri") { echo "Hello!<br />"; echo "Have a nice weekend!"; echo "See you on Monday!"; } ?> 28
  29. 29. PHP Switch Statement Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. Example: <?php switch ($x) { case 1: echo "Number 1"; break; case 2: echo "Number 2"; break; case 3: echo "Number 3"; break; default: echo "No number between 1 and 3"; } ?> 29
  30. 30. PHP (Advanced Topics) Arrays, Loops, Functions, Forms, Database Handling 30
  31. 31. Arrays 31
  32. 32. Arrays There are three different kind of arrays: • Numeric array - An array with a numeric ID key • Associative array - An array where each ID key is associated with a value • Multidimensional array - An array containing one or more arrays 32
  33. 33. Numeric Array Example 1 In this example the ID key (index) is automatically assigned: $names = array("Peter", "Quagmire", "Joe"); 33
  34. 34. Numeric Array Example 2 In this example we assign the ID key manually: $names[0] = "Peter"; $names[1] = "Quagmire"; $names[2] = "Joe"; 34
  35. 35. Displaying Numeric Array <?php $names[0] = "Peter"; $names[1] = "Quagmire"; $names[2] = "Joe"; echo $names[1] . " and " . $names[2] . " are ". $names[0] . "'s neighbors"; ?> Output Quagmire and Joe are Peter's neighbors 35
  36. 36. Associative Array Example 1 $ages = array("Peter"=>32, "Quagmire"=>30, "Joe"=>34); Example 2 $ages['Peter'] = "32"; $ages['Quagmire'] = "30"; $ages['Joe'] = "34"; Displaying Associative Array <?php $ages['Peter'] = "32"; $ages['Quagmire'] = "30"; $ages['Joe'] = "34"; echo "Peter is " . $ages['Peter'] . " years old."; ?> Output Peter is 32 years old. 36
  37. 37. Loops 37
  38. 38. Loops In PHP we have the following looping statements: • while - loops through a block of code if and as long as a specified condition is true • do...while - loops through a block of code once, and then repeats the loop as long as a special condition is true • for - loops through a block of code a specified number of times • foreach - loops through a block of code for each element in an array 38
  39. 39. while & do while Loops //Programs Displaying value from 1 to 5. <html> <body> <?php $i=1; while($i<=5) { echo "The number is " . $i . "<br />"; $i++; } ?> </body> </html> <html> <body> <?php $i=0; do { $i++; echo "The number is " . $i . "<br />"; } while ($i<5); ?> </body> </html> 39
  40. 40. for and foreach Loops //The following examples prints the text "Hello World!" five times: <html> <body> <?php for ($i=1; $i<=5; $i++) { echo "Hello World!<br />"; } ?> </body> </html> <html> <body> <?php $arr=array("one", "two", "three"); foreach ($arr as $value) { echo "Value: " . $value . "<br />"; } ?> </body> </html> 40
  41. 41. Functions 41
  42. 42. Functions Creating PHP functions: • All functions start with the word "function()“ • The name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number) • Add a "{" – The code starts after the opening curly brace • Insert the code or STATEMENTS • Add a "}" - The code is finished by a closing curly brace 42
  43. 43. Functions //A simple function that writes name when it is called: <html> <body> <?php function writeMyName() { echo "Kai Jim Refsnes"; } writeMyName(); ?> </body> Output </html> Hello world! My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. That's right, Kai Jim Refsnes is my name. // Now we will use the function in a PHP script: <html><body> <?php function writeMyName() { echo "Kai Jim Refsnes"; } echo "Hello world!<br />"; echo "My name is "; writeMyName(); echo ".<br />That's right, "; writeMyName(); echo " is my name."; ?> </body> </html> 43
  44. 44. Functions with Parameters //The following example will write different first names, but the same last name: <html><body> <?php function writeMyName($fname) { echo $fname . " Refsnes.<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Kai Jim"); echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Hege"); echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Stale"); ?> </body></html> //The following function has two parameters: <html><body> <?php function writeMyName($fname, $punctuation) { echo $fname . " Refsnes" . $punctuation . “<br/>"; } echo "My name is "; writeMyName("Kai Jim","."); echo "My name is "; Output writeMyName("Hege","!"); name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My My name is Hege Refsnes. echo "My name is "; My name is Stale Refsnes. 44 writeMyName("Ståle","...");
  45. 45. Functions: Return Values //Functions can also be used to return values. <html> <body> <?php function add($x,$y) { Output $total = $x + $y; 1 + 16 = return $total; } echo "1 + 16 = " . add(1,16); ?> </body> </html> 17 45
  46. 46. Form (User Input) 46
  47. 47. PHP Form The PHP $_GET and $_POST variables are used to retrieve information from forms, like user input. PHP Form Handling The most important thing to notice when dealing with HTML forms and PHP is that any form element in an HTML page will automatically be available to your PHP scripts. 47
  48. 48. PHP Forms ($_POST) Example 1 //The file name is input.html <html> <body> <form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> // The "welcome.php" file looks like this: </form> <html> <body> </body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]; ? </html> 2 >.<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> The example HTML page above contains two input fields and a submit button. When the years old. user fills in this form and click on the submit button, the form data is sent to the "welcome.php" file. </body> </html> 3 Output Welcome John. 48 You are 28 years
  49. 49. $_POST, $_GET, and $_REQUEST • The $_POST variable is an array of variable names and values sent by the HTTP POST method. • When using the $_GET variable all variable names and values are displayed in the URL. So this method should not be used to send sensitive information. • The PHP $_REQUEST variable can be used to get the result from form data sent with both the GET and POST methods. 49
  50. 50. $_POST, $_GET, and $_REQUEST //FILE calling welcome.php <form action="welcome.php" method="get"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> $_GET Example: //PHP file can now use the $_GET variable to catch the form data Welcome <?php echo $_GET["name"]; ?>.<br /> OR $_REQUEST Example: //PHP file can now use the $_GET variable to catch the form data Welcome <?php echo $_REQUEST["name"]; ?>.<br /> File 2: PHP File 1: HTML Example: 50
  51. 51. Database Handling PHP and MySQL 51
  52. 52. MySQL • MySQL is a database. • The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables. • The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables. • A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name (e.g. "Customers" or "Orders"). 52
  53. 53. MySQL All SQL queries are applicable in MySQL e.g. SELECT, CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. Below is an example of a table called "Persons": LastName FirstName Address City Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger 53
  54. 54. PHP MySQL Connection Syntax mysql_connect(servername,username,password); Parameter Description servername (Optional) - Specifies the server to connect to. Default value is "localhost:3306" username (Optional) - Specifies the username to log in with. Default value is the name of the user that owns the server process password (Optional) - Specifies the password to log in with. Default is "". 54
  55. 55. Opening PHP MySQL Connection Example In the following example we store the connection in a variable ($con) for later use in the script. The "die" part will be executed if the connection fails: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost",“user",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } // some code ?> 55
  56. 56. Closing PHP MySQL Connection The connection will be closed automatically when the script ends. To close the connection before, use the mysql_close() function: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost",“user",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } // some code mysql_close($con); ?> 56
  57. 57. Create Database Syntax CREATE DATABASE database_name Example The following example creates a database called "my_db": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost“, ”user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db",$con)) { echo "Database created"; } else { echo "Error creating database: " . mysql_error(); } mysql_close($con); ?> 57
  58. 58. Create Table Syntax Example: CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name1 data_type, column_name2 data_type, column_name3 data_type, .... ) <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost", “user",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } // Create database if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db",$con)) { echo "Database created"; } else { echo "Error creating database: " . mysql_error(); } FirstName varchar(15), LastName varchar(15), Age int )"; // Execute query mysql_query($sql, 58
  59. 59. Create Table Primary Key and Auto Increment Fields • Each table should have a primary key field. • The primary key field cannot be null & requires a value. Example $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( personID int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, PRIMARY KEY(personID), FirstName varchar(15), LastName varchar(15), Age int )"; mysql_query($sql,$con); 59
  60. 60. Insert Data Syntax: INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...) OR INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3,...) VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...) 60
  61. 61. Insert Data Example <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost", “user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName, LastName, Age) VALUES ('Peter', 'Griffin', '35')"); mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName, LastName, Age) VALUES ('Glenn', 'Quagmire', '33')"); mysql_close($con); ?> 61
  62. 62. Insert Data (HTML FORM to DB) <!-- Save this file as web_form.html --> <html> <body> <form action="insert.php" method="post"> Firstname: <input type="text" name="firstname" /> Lastname: <input type="text" name="lastname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> Note: Two files are required to input Note: Two files are required to input and store data. First, web_form.html </form> and store data. First, web_form.html file containing HTML web form. file containing HTML web form. </body> Secondly, insert.php (on next slide) file Secondly, insert.php (on next slide) file </html> to store received data into database. to store received data into database. 62
  63. 63. Insert Data (HTML FORM to DB) //Save this file as insert.php <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost", “user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); $sql="INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName, LastName, Age) VALUES ('$_POST[firstname]','$_POST[lastname]','$_POST[age]')"; if (!mysql_query($sql,$con)) { die('Error: ' . mysql_error()); } echo "1 record added"; mysql_close($con) ?> 63
  64. 64. Retrieve Data Example: mysql_query() function is used to send a query. <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost", “user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"); while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . " " . $row['LastName']; echo "<br />“;} mysql_close($con); ?> 64
  65. 65. Display Retrieved Data Example: <th>Lastname</th> </tr>"; <?php while($row = $con = mysql_connect("localhost", mysql_fetch_array($result)) “user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { { echo "<tr>"; die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); echo "<td>" . $row['FirstName'] . } "</td>"; mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); echo "<td>" . $row['LastName'] . $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"); "</td>"; echo "<table border='1'> echo "</tr>"; <tr> <th>Firstname</th> } echo "</table>"; 65
  66. 66. Searching (using WHERE clause) Example: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost",“user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Peter'"); while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . " " . $row['LastName']; Output echo "<br />"; } Peter Griffin ?> 66
  67. 67. Update Example <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost",“user_name",”password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); mysql_query("UPDATE Persons SET Age = '36' WHERE FirstName = 'Peter' AND LastName = 'Griffin'"); mysql_close($con); ?> Peter Griffin’s age was 35 Now age changed into 36 67
  68. 68. Delete Example: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost",“user_name",“password"); if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error()); } mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); mysql_query("DELETE FROM Persons WHERE LastName='Griffin'"); mysql_close($con); ?> 68
  69. 69. WAMP Server (Apache, PHP, and MySQL) Installation 69
  70. 70. Installation What do you need? Most people would prefer to install all-in-one solution: – WampServer -> for Windows platform Includes: • Apache 2.2.11 - MySQL 5.1.36 - PHP 5.3.0 • Download from http://www.wampserver.com/en/ – http://lamphowto.com/ -> for Linux platform 70
  71. 71. Software to be used Wampserver (Apache, MySQL, PHP for Windows) WampServer provides a plateform to develop web applications using PHP, MySQL and Apache web server. After successful installation, you should have an new icon in the bottom right, where the clock is: 71
  72. 72. WAMP Local Host IP address 127.0.0.1 72
  73. 73. Saving your PHP files Whenever you create a new PHP page, you need to save it in your WWW directory. You can see where this is by clicking its item on the menu: When you click on www directory You'll probably have only two files, index and testmysql. This www folder for Wampserver is usally at this location on your hard drive: c:/wamp/www/ 73
  74. 74. Thank You.

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